The Two Princes Of Calabar

Welcome,you are looking at books for reading, the The Two Princes Of Calabar, you will able to read or download in Pdf or ePub books and notice some of author may have lock the live reading for some of country. Therefore it need a FREE signup process to obtain the book. If it available for your country it will shown as book reader and user fully subscribe will benefit by having full access to all books. Click and join the free full access now.

The Two Princes of Calabar

The Two Princes of Calabar [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 9780674043893
Author: ,
Publisher: Harvard University Press
File Size: 675 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 9897002

GET EBOOK

The Two Princes of Calabar by , Book Resume:

In 1767, two "princes" of a ruling family in the port of Old Calabar, on the slave coast of Africa, were ambushed and captured by English slavers. The princes were themselves slave traders who were betrayed by African competitors--and so began their own extraordinary odyssey of enslavement. Their story, written in their own hand, survives as a rare firsthand account of the Atlantic slave experience. Sparks made the remarkable discovery of the princes' correspondence and has managed to reconstruct their adventures from it.

The Two Princes of Calabar

The Two Princes of Calabar [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0674267486
Author: Randy J. Sparks
Publisher: Harvard University Press
File Size: 498 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 19579

DOWNLOAD

The Two Princes of Calabar by Randy J. Sparks Book Resume:

In 1767, two "princes" of a ruling family in the port of Old Calabar, on the slave coast of Africa, were ambushed and captured by English slavers. The princes, Little Ephraim Robin John and Ancona Robin Robin John, were themselves slave traders who were betrayed by African competitors--and so began their own extraordinary odyssey of enslavement. Their story, written in their own hand, survives as a rare firsthand account of the Atlantic slave experience. Randy Sparks made the remarkable discovery of the princes' correspondence and has managed to reconstruct their adventures from it. They were transported from the coast of Africa to Dominica, where they were sold to a French physician. By employing their considerable language and interpersonal skills, they cleverly negotiated several escapes that took them from the Caribbean to Virginia, and to England, but always ended in their being enslaved again. Finally, in England, they sued for, and remarkably won, their freedom. Eventually, they found their way back to Old Calabar and, evidence suggests, resumed their business of slave trading. The Two Princes of Calabar offers a rare glimpse into the eighteenth-century Atlantic World and slave trade from an African perspective. It brings us into the trading communities along the coast of Africa and follows the regular movement of goods, people, and ideas across and around the Atlantic. It is an extraordinary tale of slaves' relentless quest for freedom and their important role in the creation of the modern Atlantic World.

The Two Princes of Calabar

The Two Princes of Calabar [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0674043898
Author: Randy J. Sparks
Publisher: Harvard University Press
File Size: 1287 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6090128

DOWNLOAD

The Two Princes of Calabar by Randy J. Sparks Book Resume:

In 1767, two "princes" of a ruling family in the port of Old Calabar, on the slave coast of Africa, were ambushed and captured by English slavers. The princes, Little Ephraim Robin John and Ancona Robin Robin John, were themselves slave traders who were betrayed by African competitors--and so began their own extraordinary odyssey of enslavement. Their story, written in their own hand, survives as a rare firsthand account of the Atlantic slave experience. Randy Sparks made the remarkable discovery of the princes' correspondence and has managed to reconstruct their adventures from it. They were transported from the coast of Africa to Dominica, where they were sold to a French physician. By employing their considerable language and interpersonal skills, they cleverly negotiated several escapes that took them from the Caribbean to Virginia, and to England, but always ended in their being enslaved again. Finally, in England, they sued for, and remarkably won, their freedom. Eventually, they found their way back to Old Calabar and, evidence suggests, resumed their business of slave trading. The Two Princes of Calabar offers a rare glimpse into the eighteenth-century Atlantic World and slave trade from an African perspective. It brings us into the trading communities along the coast of Africa and follows the regular movement of goods, people, and ideas across and around the Atlantic. It is an extraordinary tale of slaves' relentless quest for freedom and their important role in the creation of the modern Atlantic World.

Where the Negroes Are Masters

Where the Negroes Are Masters [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0674727762
Author: Randy J. Sparks
Publisher: Harvard University Press
File Size: 1784 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 3271629

DOWNLOAD

Where the Negroes Are Masters by Randy J. Sparks Book Resume:

Annamaboe--largest slave trading port on the Gold Coast--was home to wily African merchants whose partnerships with Europeans made the town an integral part of Atlantic webs of exchange. Randy Sparks recreates the outpost's feverish bustle and brutality, tracing the entrepreneurs, black and white, who thrived on a lucrative traffic in human beings.

Slave Country

Slave Country [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0674042913
Author: Adam ROTHMAN
Publisher: Harvard University Press
File Size: 1242 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 906079

DOWNLOAD

Slave Country by Adam ROTHMAN Book Resume:

Slave Country tells the tragic story of the expansion of slavery in the new United States. In the wake of the American Revolution, slavery gradually disappeared from the northern states and the importation of captive Africans was prohibited. Yet, at the same time, the country's slave population grew, new plantation crops appeared, and several new slave states joined the Union. Adam Rothman explores how slavery flourished in a new nation dedicated to the principle of equality among free men, and reveals the enormous consequences of U.S. expansion into the region that became the Deep South. Rothman maps the combination of transatlantic capitalism and American nationalism that provoked a massive forced migration of slaves into Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi. He tells the fascinating story of collaboration and conflict among the diverse European, African, and indigenous peoples who inhabited the Deep South during the Jeffersonian era, and who turned the region into the most dynamic slave system of the Atlantic world. Paying close attention to dramatic episodes of resistance, rebellion, and war, Rothman exposes the terrible violence that haunted the Jeffersonian vision of republican expansion across the American continent. Slave Country combines political, economic, military, and social history in an elegant narrative that illuminates the perilous relation between freedom and slavery in the early United States. This book is essential reading for anyone interested in an honest look at America's troubled past.

The Diary of Antera Duke

The Diary of Antera Duke [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 9780199704446
Author: Stephen D. Behrendt,A.J.H. Latham,David Northrup
Publisher: Oxford University Press
File Size: 1090 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 9856264

DOWNLOAD

The Diary of Antera Duke by Stephen D. Behrendt,A.J.H. Latham,David Northrup Book Resume:

In his diary, Antera Duke (ca.1735-ca.1809) wrote the only surviving eyewitness account of the slave trade by an African merchant. A leader in late eighteenth-century Old Calabar, a cluster of Efik-speaking communities in the Cross River region, he resided in Duke Town, forty-five miles from the Atlantic Ocean in what is now southeast Nigeria. His diary, written in trade English from 1785 to 1788, is a candid account of daily life in an African community at the height of Calabar's overseas commerce. It provides valuable information on Old Calabar's economic activity both with other African businessmen and with European ship captains who arrived to trade for slaves, produce, and provisions. This new edition of Antera's diary, the first in fifty years, draws on the latest scholarship to place the diary in its historical context. Introductory essays set the stage for the Old Calabar of Antera Duke's lifetime, explore the range of trades, from slaves to produce, in which he rose to prominence, and follow Antera on trading missions across an extensive commercial hinterland. The essays trace the settlement and development of the towns that comprised Old Calabar and survey the community's social and political structure, rivalries among families, sacrifices of slaves, and witchcraft ordeals. This edition reproduces Antera's original trade-English diary with a translation into standard English on facing pages, along with extensive annotation. The Diary of Antera Duke furnishes a uniquely valuable source for the history of precolonial Nigeria and the Atlantic slave trade, and this new edition enriches our understanding of it.

Fatal Journey

Fatal Journey [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0786747870
Author: Peter C. Mancall
Publisher: Basic Books
File Size: 1894 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5350531

DOWNLOAD

Fatal Journey by Peter C. Mancall Book Resume:

The English explorer Henry Hudson devoted his life to the search for a water route through America, becoming the first European to navigate the Hudson River in the process. In Fatal Journey, acclaimed historian and biographer Peter C. Mancall narrates Hudson's final expedition. In the winter of 1610, after navigating dangerous fields of icebergs near the northern tip of Labrador, Hudson's small ship became trapped in winter ice. Provisions grew scarce and tensions mounted amongst the crew. Within months, the men mutinied, forcing Hudson, his teenage son, and seven other men into a skiff, which they left floating in the Hudson Bay. A story of exploration, desperation, and icebound tragedy, Fatal Journey vividly chronicles the undoing of the great explorer, not by an angry ocean, but at the hands of his own men.

Madeleine's Children

Madeleine's Children [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0190233907
Author: Sue Peabody
Publisher: Oxford University Press
File Size: 332 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7336889

DOWNLOAD

Madeleine's Children by Sue Peabody Book Resume:

Madeleine's Children uncovers a multigenerational saga of an enslaved family in India and two islands, Réunion and Mauritius, in the eastern empires of France and Britain during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A tale of legal intrigue, it reveals the lives and secret relationships between slaves and free people that have remained obscure for two centuries. As a child, Madeleine was pawned by her impoverished family and became the slave of a French woman in Bengal. She accompanied her mistress to France as a teenager, but she did not challenge her enslavement there on the basis of France's Free Soil principle, a consideration that did not come to light until future lawyers investigated her story. In France, a new master and mistress purchased her, despite laws prohibiting the sale of slaves within the kingdom. The couple transported Madeleine across the ocean to their plantation in the Indian Ocean colonies, where she eventually gave birth to three children: Maurice, Constance, and Furcy. One died a slave and two eventually became free, but under very different circumstances. On 21 November 1817, Furcy exited the gates of his master's mansion and declared himself a free man. The lawsuit waged by Furcy to challenge his wrongful enslavement ultimately brought him before the Royal Court of Paris, despite the extreme measures that his putative master, Joseph Lory, deployed to retain him as his slave. A meticulous work of archival detection, Madeleine's Children investigates the cunning, clandestine, and brutal strategies that masters devised to keep slaves under their control-and paints a vivid picture of the unique and evolving meanings of slavery and freedom in the Indian Ocean world.

The French Atlantic Triangle

The French Atlantic Triangle [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0822388839
Author: Christopher L. Miller
Publisher: Duke University Press
File Size: 908 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 8914547

DOWNLOAD

The French Atlantic Triangle by Christopher L. Miller Book Resume:

The French slave trade forced more than one million Africans across the Atlantic to the islands of the Caribbean. It enabled France to establish Saint-Domingue, the single richest colony on earth, and it connected France, Africa, and the Caribbean permanently. Yet the impact of the slave trade on the cultures of France and its colonies has received surprisingly little attention. Until recently, France had not publicly acknowledged its history as a major slave-trading power. The distinguished scholar Christopher L. Miller proposes a thorough assessment of the French slave trade and its cultural ramifications, in a broad, circum-Atlantic inquiry. This magisterial work is the first comprehensive examination of the French Atlantic slave trade and its consequences as represented in the history, literature, and film of France and its former colonies in Africa and the Caribbean. Miller offers a historical introduction to the cultural and economic dynamics of the French slave trade, and he shows how Enlightenment thinkers such as Montesquieu and Voltaire mused about the enslavement of Africans, while Rousseau ignored it. He follows the twists and turns of attitude regarding the slave trade through the works of late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century French writers, including Olympe de Gouges, Madame de Staël, Madame de Duras, Prosper Mérimée, and Eugène Sue. For these authors, the slave trade was variously an object of sentiment, a moral conundrum, or an entertaining high-seas “adventure.” Turning to twentieth-century literature and film, Miller describes how artists from Africa and the Caribbean—including the writers Aimé Césaire, Maryse Condé, and Edouard Glissant, and the filmmakers Ousmane Sembene, Guy Deslauriers, and Roger Gnoan M’Bala—have confronted the aftermath of France’s slave trade, attempting to bridge the gaps between silence and disclosure, forgetfulness and memory.

The Hanging of Thomas Jeremiah

The Hanging of Thomas Jeremiah [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0300155697
Author: J. William Harris
Publisher: Yale University Press
File Size: 1670 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 662257

DOWNLOAD

The Hanging of Thomas Jeremiah by J. William Harris Book Resume:

"A searing portrayal of the central paradox of the American Revolution—the centrality of slavery to the struggle for political liberty."—Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, Harvard UniversityThe tragic untold story of how a nation struggling for its freedom denied it to one of its own: a free Black manIn 1775, Thomas Jeremiah was one of fewer than five hundred “Free Negros” in South Carolina and, with an estimated worth of £1,000 (about $200,000 in today’s dollars), possibly the richest person of African descent in British North America. A slaveowner himself, Jeremiah was falsely accused by whites—who resented his success as a Charleston harbor pilot—of sowing insurrection among slaves at the behest of the British.Chief among the accusers was Henry Laurens, Charleston’s leading patriot, a slaveowner and former slave trader, who would later become the president of the Continental Congress. On the other side was Lord William Campbell, royal governor of the colony, who passionately believed that the accusation was unjust and tried to save Jeremiah’s life but failed. Though a free man, Jeremiah was tried in a slave court and sentenced to death. In August 1775, he was hanged and his body burned.J. William Harris tells Jeremiah’s story in full for the first time, illuminating the contradiction between a nation that would be born in a struggle for freedom and yet deny it—often violently—to others.

Africans in the Old South

Africans in the Old South [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0674970152
Author: Randy J. Sparks
Publisher: Harvard University Press
File Size: 796 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 8281825

DOWNLOAD

Africans in the Old South by Randy J. Sparks Book Resume:

The Atlantic slave trade was the largest forced migration in history, yet most of its stories are lost. Randy Sparks examines the few remaining reconstructed experiences of West Africans who lived in the South between 1740 and 1860. Their stories highlight the diversity of struggles that confronted every African who arrived on American shores.

The American Family

The American Family [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0230339662
Author: David Peterson del Mar
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 507 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4119688

DOWNLOAD

The American Family by David Peterson del Mar Book Resume:

Traces the movement from mutualism to individualism in the context of American family life. Families survived or even flourished during colonization, Revolution, slavery, immigration and economic upheaval. In the past century, prosperity created a culture devoted to pleasure and individual fulfilment.

Architecture and Empire in Jamaica

Architecture and Empire in Jamaica [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0300214359
Author: Louis Nelson
Publisher: Yale University Press
File Size: 1137 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5259539

DOWNLOAD

Architecture and Empire in Jamaica by Louis Nelson Book Resume:

Through Creole houses and merchant stores to sugar fields and boiling houses, Jamaica played a leading role in the formation of both the early modern Atlantic world and the British Empire. Architecture and Empire in Jamaica offers the first scholarly analysis of Jamaican architecture in the long 18th century, spanning roughly from the Port Royal earthquake of 1692 to Emancipation in 1838. In this richly illustrated study, which includes hundreds of the author’s own photographs and drawings, Louis P. Nelson examines surviving buildings and archival records to write a social history of architecture. Nelson begins with an overview of the architecture of the West African slave trade then moves to chapters framed around types of buildings and landscapes, including the Jamaican plantation landscape and fortified houses to the architecture of free blacks. He concludes with a consideration of Jamaican architecture in Britain. By connecting the architecture of the Caribbean first to West Africa and then to Britain, Nelson traces the flow of capital and makes explicit the material, economic, and political networks around the Atlantic.

African Humanity

African Humanity [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1469150271
Author: Dr. Robinson A. Milwood, Phd
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
File Size: 532 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 3426476

DOWNLOAD

African Humanity by Dr. Robinson A. Milwood, Phd Book Resume:

My thesis is basically intended for theological and philosophical students and at the same-time their lecturers in biblical theology, systematic theology and philosophy of religion. There is no doubt in my mind that these disciplines must surgically forcefully put through the hermeneutical operation of radicalism and liberation black theology and black studies. Because liberation black theology and black studies are both pertinent and existential to black people not only in the diaspora but principally within the demography of Africa. Why? Because Africa is the social, economic, political, scientific, spiritual, theological and psychological incubation chamber with the legacies of the transatlantic slave trade, colonialism and semantic cultural Christianization of Africans. The besom merchants, traders, planters, slavers, missionaries, philosophers, historians, theologians and scientists, with savagery and brutality imposed on African slaves mendaciously that enslavement was good for Africans. It is therefore apposite for liberation black theology and black studies particularly in praxis to critique and challenge the systems and endogenous forces that violated and emasculated Africans empowerment and humanity. The slaves were brutally transformed physically and psychologically. The slave’s potentialities endowed with the imprint of the African traditional belief in a supreme being and prime mover of the cosmos was transgressed with falsehood that their belief in a supreme being was primitive and paganistic. For Africans the supreme being is within their inner consciousness. The enslavement of Africans was without morality and justice. The creation of a symbiosis of liberation theology, liberation black theology and hermeneutical application and praxis is sempiternal significance to the black experience and the Jesus of the black experience that gives timba to the dis-empowered blacks of the streets of Accra and the continent of Africa that were consciously made into the apocalyptic and eschatological symbol of poverty, dis-possessed, impuissant politically and economically in a world that is dominated with nuclear weapons and technological hegemony. In the midst of such imbalance and the perversion of justice and equality regardless of ethnicity, black people must make the conscious, spiritual and psychological connection with the Jesus of the stigmata of the imprisoned African slaves on the Middle Passage and the diabolical plantations. There is no another way according to the sociological, theological, psychological impacting force of the various violations of Africans dignity, liberty, freedom, equality and humanity of black people in all dimensions of struggles to become veridical human beings in the full image of God. That is to say, theologically and sociologically the derivatives of shalom culminating in the absolute restoration of black humanity. With the force of chimerical-ism twinned with the black man’s epistemological dreams without empiricism and existentialism. It is at this juncture that all the mythological aspirations are reduced to the level of stultification because Christianity with the painting of a white plastic Jesus cannot be connected with the black experience. When on Good Friday black people sing with effusive passion ‘ Jesus keep me near the Cross’ the Kebuka and Maafa on the plantation sufferings, brutalization and de-humanization rings with

Stolen Childhood, Second Edition

Stolen Childhood, Second Edition [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0253001072
Author: Wilma King
Publisher: Indiana University Press
File Size: 1308 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 8171817

DOWNLOAD

Stolen Childhood, Second Edition by Wilma King Book Resume:

One of the most important books published on slave society, Stolen Childhood focuses on the millions of children and youth enslaved in 19th-century America. This enlarged and revised edition reflects the abundance of new scholarship on slavery that has emerged in the 15 years since the first edition. While the structure of the book remains the same, Wilma King has expanded its scope to include the international dimension with a new chapter on the transatlantic trade in African children, and the book's geographic boundaries now embrace slave-born children in the North. She includes data about children owned by Native Americans and African Americans, and presents new information about children's knowledge of and participation in the abolitionist movement and the interactions between enslaved and free children.

Books on Early American History and Culture, 2001–2005: An Annotated Bibliography

Books on Early American History and Culture, 2001–2005: An Annotated Bibliography [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1440829225
Author: Raymond D. Irwin
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
File Size: 1157 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4544256

DOWNLOAD

Books on Early American History and Culture, 2001–2005: An Annotated Bibliography by Raymond D. Irwin Book Resume:

This volume offers a complete listing and description of books published on early America between 2001 and 2005. • The book is organized thematically to facilitate research • Extensive author indexes and guides to important works for the time period are provided • The most important books in each subject (e.g., gender, politics) are enumerated based on frequency of citation

Fighting the Slave Trade

Fighting the Slave Trade [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0821441809
Author: Sylviane A. Diouf
Publisher: Ohio University Press
File Size: 1435 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 1911057

DOWNLOAD

Fighting the Slave Trade by Sylviane A. Diouf Book Resume:

While most studies of the slave trade focus on the volume of captives and on their ethnic origins, the question of how the Africans organized their familial and communal lives to resist and assail it has not received adequate attention. But our picture of the slave trade is incomplete without an examination of the ways in which men and women responded to the threat and reality of enslavement and deportation. Fighting the Slave Trade is the first book to explore in a systematic manner the strategies Africans used to protect and defend themselves and their communities from the onslaught of the Atlantic slave trade and how they assaulted it. It challenges widely held myths of African passivity and general complicity in the trade and shows that resistance to enslavement and to involvement in the slave trade was much more pervasive than has been acknowledged by the orthodox interpretation of historical literature. Focused on West Africa, the essays collected here examine in detail the defensive, protective, and offensive strategies of individuals, families, communities, and states. In chapters discussing the manipulation of the environment, resettlement, the redemption of captives, the transformation of social relations, political centralization, marronage, violent assaults on ships and entrepôts, shipboard revolts, and controlled participation in the slave trade as a way to procure the means to attack it, Fighting the Slave Trade presents a much more complete picture of the West African slave trade than has previously been available.

Igbo in the Atlantic World

Igbo in the Atlantic World [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0253022576
Author: Toyin Falola,Raphael Chijioke Njoku
Publisher: Indiana University Press
File Size: 888 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5309420

DOWNLOAD

Igbo in the Atlantic World by Toyin Falola,Raphael Chijioke Njoku Book Resume:

The Igbo are one of the most populous ethnic groups in Nigeria and are perhaps best known and celebrated in the work of Chinua Achebe. In this landmark collection on Igbo society and arts, Toyin Falola and Raphael Chijioke Njoku have compiled a detailed and innovative examination of the Igbo experience in Africa and in the diaspora. Focusing on institutions and cultural practices, the volume covers the enslavement, middle passage, and American experience of the Igbo as well as their return to Africa and aspects of Igbo language, society, and cultural arts. By employing a variety of disciplinary perspectives, this volume presents a comprehensive view of how the Igbo were integrated into the Atlantic world through the slave trade and slavery, the transformations of Igbo identities and culture, and the strategies for resistance employed by the Igbo in the New World. Moving beyond descriptions of generic African experiences, this collection includes 21 essays by prominent scholars throughout the world.

Labour and Living Standards in Pre-Colonial West Africa

Labour and Living Standards in Pre-Colonial West Africa [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317222164
Author: Klas Rönnbäck
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1252 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7578854

DOWNLOAD

Labour and Living Standards in Pre-Colonial West Africa by Klas Rönnbäck Book Resume:

Sub-Saharan Africa is the poorest region in the world. But its current status has skewed our understanding of the economy before colonization. Rönnbäck reconstructs the living standards of the population at a time when the Atlantic slave trade brought money and men into the area, enriching our understanding of West African economic development.

African Americans in the Colonial Era

African Americans in the Colonial Era [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1119133890
Author: Donald R. Wright
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
File Size: 1864 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 1115648

DOWNLOAD

African Americans in the Colonial Era by Donald R. Wright Book Resume:

What are the origins of slavery and race-based prejudice in the mainland American colonies? How did the Atlantic slave trade operate to supply African labor to colonial America? How did African-American culture form and evolve? How did the American Revolution affect men and women of African descent? Previous editions of this work depicted African-Americans in the American mainland colonies as their contemporaries saw them: as persons from one of the four continents who interacted economically, socially, and politically in a vast, complex Atlantic world. It showed how the society that resulted in colonial America reflected the mix of Atlantic cultures and that a group of these people eventually used European ideas to support creation of a favorable situation for those largely of European descent, omitting Africans, who constituted their primary labor force. In this fourth edition of African Americans in the Colonial Era: From African Origins through the American Revolution, acclaimed scholar Donald R. Wright offers new interpretations to provide a clear understanding of the Atlantic slave trade and the nature of the early African-American experience. This revised edition incorporates the latest data, a fresh Atlantic perspective, and an updated bibliographical essay to thoroughly explore African-Americans’ African origins, their experience crossing the Atlantic, and their existence in colonial America in a broadened, more nuanced way.