The Gentlewomans Book Of Sports

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The Gentlewoman's Book of Sports

The Gentlewoman's Book of Sports [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 178227264X
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Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 996 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 129459

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The Gentlewoman's Book of Sports by Book Resume:

It was not easy to be a sportswoman at the end of the nineteenth century. Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the modern Olympic Games, said in 1896: "No matter how toughened a sportswoman may be, her organism is not cut out to sustain certain shocks." Women competed in the Olympics for the first time in 1900. The "white sailor hats" and the "confu- sion between you, your hat, and the ball" in Lady Greville's book may now seem charmingly old-fashioned--until we remember that in 2015, more than a century later, more than 40% of elite sportswomen in Britain were reported to have suffered sexism. Which suddenly makes the bold gentlewomen of 1892 seem far more pioneering... The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago - even if contemporary sportswomen no longer have to "thank Providence and one's tailor for one's knickerbockers"!

Sport and the Physical Emancipation of English Women (RLE Sports Studies)

Sport and the Physical Emancipation of English Women (RLE Sports Studies) [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317679644
Author: Kathleen McCrone
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1179 KB
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Read Count: 3912597

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Sport and the Physical Emancipation of English Women (RLE Sports Studies) by Kathleen McCrone Book Resume:

The nineteenth century was a golden age in British sports. Not only were sports immensely popular, but they began to assume the forms and qualities that still characterise them today. Moreover, the latter part of the century saw a significant participation in sports by women, and this book provides the first overall examination of this early development and the social changes that it helped to bring about. Since women’s entry into sports was chiefly a consequence of the campaign for better female education, the book begins with an account of sports at the Oxbridge women’s colleges, at the girls' public schools and at the new women’s physical training colleges. It then examines team sports such as hockey, lacrosse, and cricket and individual sports such as tennis, golf and cycling. Other chapters discuss the medical attitudes and prejudices toward women’s participation in sports and the role of sports in changing female dress.

A Contemporary History of Women's Sport, Part One

A Contemporary History of Women's Sport, Part One [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 131774666X
Author: Jean Williams
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 808 KB
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Read Count: 3604779

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A Contemporary History of Women's Sport, Part One by Jean Williams Book Resume:

This book is an historical survey of women’s sport from 1850-1960. It looks at some of the more recent methodological approaches to writing sports history and raises questions about how the history of women’s sport has so far been shaped by academic writers. Questions explored in this text include: What are the fresh perspectives and newly available sources for the historian of women’s sport? How do these take forward established debates on women’s place in sporting culture and what novel approaches do they suggest? How can our appreciation of fashion, travel, food and medical history be advanced by looking at women’s involvement in sport? How can we use some of the current ideas and methodologies in the recent literature on the history and sociology of sport in order to look afresh at women’s participation? Jean Williams’s original research on these topics and more will be a useful resource for scholars in the fields of sports, women’s studies, history and sociology.

Modern Sport - The Global Obsession

Modern Sport - The Global Obsession [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317997948
Author: Boria Majumdar,Fan Hong
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 341 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4721087

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Modern Sport - The Global Obsession by Boria Majumdar,Fan Hong Book Resume:

Sport has become more than a simple physical expression or game- it now pervades all societies at all levels and has become bound up in nationalism, entertainment, patriotism and culture. Now a global obsession, sport has infiltrated into all areas of modern life and despite noble ideals that sport stands above politics, religion, class, gender and ideology, the reality is often very different. These essays by leading academics and rising new talent consider the phenomenon of modern sport and its massive influence over global society. Together, this collection is also a tribute to the pioneering and inspirational work of Professor J.A. Mangan on the political, religious, class and gender-based aspects of modern sport, from academics greatly influenced by him and his writing. This book was previously published as a special issue of The International Journal of the History of Sport.

The Right Sort of Woman

The Right Sort of Woman [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1443837083
Author: Precious McKenzie,McKenzie Precious Savory Isabel Le Blond Aubrey Kingsley Mary Henrietta Bird ISA
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
File Size: 1873 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 516881

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The Right Sort of Woman by Precious McKenzie,McKenzie Precious Savory Isabel Le Blond Aubrey Kingsley Mary Henrietta Bird ISA Book Resume:

The rhetoric surrounding Empire, freedom, and adventure are nowhere more striking than in nineteenth-century British women’s travel writing. The Right Sort of Woman charts the progression of British feminism in relationship to exploration of the Empire. Precious McKenzie introduces us to the lesser known writings of Florence Douglas Dixie, Mrs. Aubrey Le Blond, and Isabel Savory, and also revisits the more widely read travel texts of Isabella Bird Bishop and Mary Kingsley. Their travel writings explore the hotly debated Victorian ideologies of femininity, equality, and fitness. McKenzie contends that British women travel writers found opportunities for freedom when traveling abroad. Women travelers could participate in what were traditionally men’s sports – hunting, riding, canoeing, shooting, mountaineering – when far away from strict Victorian social codes of behavior. Because of their athletic pursuits while abroad, British women travelers found their health improved as did their self-reliance and self-confidence. McKenzie considers how sports shaped the British feminist movement and then became integral to the revolutionary image of the New Woman at the fin de siècle.

The Lure of the North

The Lure of the North [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1782272623
Author:
Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 569 KB
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Read Count: 8275516

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The Lure of the North by Book Resume:

The 19th-century boom in mass tourism, fuelled by the introduction of the railways, brought with it the rise of travel writing. Guided excursions such as "Cook's Tours" (the first of which was led by Thomas Cook in 1841, and went from Leicester to Loughborough) were not for everyone. Many preferred to strike out alone into the depths of foreign lands. Of these foreign lands, Norway appealed to the more intrepid: the grand scenery, exotic peasantry and comparative cheapness of the Far North suited the enthusiasm of the young (or female) tourist. The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago--even if it is no longer the Norwegian custom for tourists to be awoken by "the best-looking girl in the house"!

A Full-Bodied Society

A Full-Bodied Society [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1443821969
Author: Logie Barrow
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
File Size: 1381 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7878690

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A Full-Bodied Society by Logie Barrow Book Resume:

The human body is always changing its meanings. Historical research on this can draw on a host of specialisms. Historians, lettrists and linguists contribute to this book a coherent little tumult of perspectives: what was thinkable for pagan and Christian Anglo-Saxons, and how far did the two really differ? Why did New English Puritans stop addressing God as if He were their breast-feeding Mother? How did Western colonisers’ perspectives on animals and on ‘subject races’ interact? How did Victorian and Edwardian women’s participation in sports grow? How transgressive was the figure of the ‘dandy’? What motivated late-Victorian panics over prostitution, and on what terms were victims helped? Why, in an increasingly ‘democratic’ age, did reactions to Britain's first universal health-measure become a basis for cynicism about the masses? Repeatedly, the rigidity of separation between male and female fluctuated, as did the boundaries themselves. Sometimes, the greater the rigidity, the less the sources may tell us of resistance to them. But sometimes this can be inferred indirectly. Better testimony than this volume to the liveliness and variety of body-studies is hard to imagine.

The Noble English Art of Self-Defence

The Noble English Art of Self-Defence [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1782273204
Author: Ned Donnelly
Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 1763 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 2911751

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The Noble English Art of Self-Defence by Ned Donnelly Book Resume:

A book of boxing by one of the nineteenth-century stars, celebrating the 175th anniversary of The London Library. Ned Donnelly, a former prize fighter turned boxing instructor and author (with a lot of help from his literate friends), was a household name as a one of the most successful, famous, and respected instructors in the history of British boxing. This delightful book - more than an instruction manual, more than an amusing pastime - captures the fighting style from a crucial moment in boxing history right after the Prize Ring had become extinct. With a detailed clarity of expression, and accompanied by charming illustrations of a slightly paunchy boxer, it is a fascinating insight to the man who trained George Bernard Shaw. The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago.

Women in Sports History

Women in Sports History [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317985230
Author: Carol A. Osborne,Fiona Skillen
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1128 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 1315648

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Women in Sports History by Carol A. Osborne,Fiona Skillen Book Resume:

Women are, and have been for many years, actively involved as players, supporters and co-ordinators in a range of sports and yet they are often missing from, or sidelined in, accounts of the history of these sports. Commenting first on the lack of inclusion of women in British sports history, the book goes on to examine aspects of women’s participation between the late-nineteenth century and the mid-twentieth century more broadly. It draws together some of the latest research undertaken by international scholars working in the field, and includes case studies about golf, bridge, rowing, figure skating and athletics. Between them the chapters demonstrate that women enjoyed mixed fortunes in sport. They positively highlight the scope of participation, as well as the complex interactions and responses that participation generated on account of life stage, social class, ethnicity and national identity across time and place. The incorporated methodological and theoretical approaches invite readers to reconsider existing sport historiography and point to new directions for future research. This book was first published as a special issue of Sport in History.

With Rifle & Petticoat

With Rifle & Petticoat [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1461661552
Author: Kenneth Czech
Publisher: Derrydale Press
File Size: 1137 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 2986365

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With Rifle & Petticoat by Kenneth Czech Book Resume:

The image that comes to mind when you think of big game hunters is of African safaris with men carrying enormous guns hunting exotic game. But there were women on those trips as well, and not just the trips to Africa, and they were often as successful at the hunt as the men. Women such as Lady Florence Dixie, Agnes Herbert, Osa Johnson, Grace Gallatin Seton, and Gladys Harriman hunted so well, they made names for themselves and wrote of their adventures. Divided into chapters detailing a specific time period, region hunted or individual woman, With Rifle and Petticoat explores the interesting women who hunted a variety of big game animals around the world.

On Reading, Writing and Living with Books

On Reading, Writing and Living with Books [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1782272615
Author:
Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 1318 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 2507865

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On Reading, Writing and Living with Books by Book Resume:

The London Library is the world's largest independent library. Founded in 1841 by Thomas Carlyle (in reaction to the "museum headache" brought on by the crowds in the British Museum Reading Room), it has become a haven for readers, writers and all who draw strength, solace or inspiration from the presence of books. Some of the most illustrious figures of the last two centuries have written, thought and walked there: George Eliot, Charles Dickens, E.M. Forster, Virginia Woolf and many more were members. And over time, some of these celebrated members have shared--with each other, or with an interested public--their views on the delights, challenges and joys of reading, writing and living with books. The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago.

Heart Shots

Heart Shots [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0811767272
Author: Mary Zeiss Stange
Publisher: Stackpole Books
File Size: 1738 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 3783539

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Heart Shots by Mary Zeiss Stange Book Resume:

“A heart shot is what every big game hunter hopes for,” Editor Mary Zeiss Stange explains in the introduction to Heart Shots, “that perfect shot placement, whether of bullet or arrow, which ensures a quick, humane kill. A heart shot is also what the best hunting writing has always aimed for—that certain image, or theme, or turn of phrase that strikes to the core of our flesh-and-blood humanity, piercing the tissue-thin membrane between life and death.” Hunting and writing about it have not commonly been thought of as women’s work, but today women are hunting and writing about it in unprecedented numbers. This collection of stories by 46 hunters who happen to be female shows us that in fact some women have always hunted, and some have written dazzling accounts of their experiences. What you’ll find in k to nature and basics and to express in narrative, image, and metaphor the complex meaning of being predator, such impulses are ageless and genderless. There are differences in the way women go about hunting and telling its story. Some are subtle and some are startling. In this marvelous collection a full range of writers from hard-edged realists to contemplative naturalists express the complex thought and emotion that constitute hunting with intelligence and insight. These women are aware of the fact that they are doing something distinctly out of the ordinary. And this is a book distinctly out of the ordinary as well, to be enjoyed, pondered, and savored by women and men alike, all who appreciate a good story well told. [Stories and essays written by Mary Jobe Akeley, Kim Barnes, Nellie Bennett, Durga Bernhard, Courtney Borden, and many more.]

A Widening Sphere (Routledge Revivals)

A Widening Sphere (Routledge Revivals) [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1135043884
Author: Martha Vicinus
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1593 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6298119

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A Widening Sphere (Routledge Revivals) by Martha Vicinus Book Resume:

First published in 1977, this book is a companion volume to Suffer and Be Still. It looks at the widening sphere of women’s activities in the Victorian age and testifies to the dual nature of the legal and social constraints of the period: on the one hand, the ideal of the perfect lady and the restrictive laws governing marriage and property posed limits to women’s independence; on the other hand, some Victorian women chose to live lives of great variety and complexity. By uncovering new data and reinterpreting old, the contributors in this volume debunk some of the myths surrounding the Victorian woman and alter stereotypes on which many of today’s social customs are based.

Cycling

Cycling [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1782272593
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Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 998 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4120179

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Cycling by Book Resume:

The first bicycle was invented at the beginning of the nineteenth century, but it wasn't until the 1890s that the craze really took off. This brought with it the fears, scaremongering, worries and uncertainties that inevitably accompany any new fashion. Women (often unchaperoned and oddly dressed) taking to "velocipedes"; overexertion; the possibility of heart disease - these are just some of the fears that haunted the establishment in the late nineteenth century... But with it, of course, came the joy and wonder of "the easy and agreeable motion" of this thoroughly modern means of locomotion. The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago - even if the cardiovascular dangers of cycling have now been disproved!

Through a Glass Lightly

Through a Glass Lightly [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1782273166
Author: Thomas Tylston Greg
Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 534 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 9441283

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Through a Glass Lightly by Thomas Tylston Greg Book Resume:

The love of drinking was well-developed in the nineteenth-century Englishman. With chapters on port, claret, sherry, champagne, Burgundy, Madeira, wine cellars, glasses and butlers, Through a Glass Lightly is a love letter to wine and everything that came with it. But the passionate tale has a sorry ending: in the final two chapters, the author develops gout and has to become a teetotaller in order to be able to take out life insurance. The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago.

Hints on Etiqette

Hints on Etiqette [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1782273220
Author:
Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 981 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 1676228

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Hints on Etiqette by Book Resume:

A book of dining, flirting, dancing and smoking, celebrating the 175th anniversary of The London Library. With nineteenth-century fashions constantly changing, but the importance of the baffling social codes entirely rigid, a newly-prosperous and bewildered middle class was in dire need of careful guidance and advice. With the help of his mysterious lady friend, Charles William Day has a kind-hearted mission: "If these 'hints' save the blush upon one cheek, or smooth the path into 'society' of only one honest family, the object of the author will be attained." Here is a book which walks the hopeful reader through the finer details of dining, smoking, dancing, flirting, card-playing, walking and talking. The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago.

On Corpulence

On Corpulence [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1782272631
Author: Lewis Carroll
Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 782 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 784159

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On Corpulence by Lewis Carroll Book Resume:

Fat seemed to be getting fatter under Queen Victoria: Tweedledum and Tweedledee; Joe "the fat boy" in The Pickwick Papers; even the first known report of childhood obesity in 1859. But for the short, corpulent (and extremely success- ful) undertaker William Banting, the overweight life was not a bundle of laughs. It was only at the age of sixty, when he was unable to even "attend to the little offices which humanity requires, without considerable pain and difficulty", that he finally stumbled upon a cure: an early incarnation of the Atkins diet. Butter, potatoes, sugar, milk--all gone, in favour of fish, meat, dry toast (and seven glasses of claret a day). And with the diet for the body came a diet for the mind: for Lewis Carroll, an indiscriminate intake of "fatty" information was just as harmful as carbohydrates--and in today's society of ever-increasing "consumption" of food, news and even relationships, Banting and Carroll are remarkably ahead of their time. The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago--even if contemporary dieticians might not recommend quite such a regular intake of brandy!

A Woman's Walks

A Woman's Walks [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1782273247
Author: Lady Colin Campbell
Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 1293 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4484391

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A Woman's Walks by Lady Colin Campbell Book Resume:

A book of exploration and discovery, celebrating the 175th anniversary of The London Library. From young men seeking outdoor adventure to intrepid ladies of a certain age discovering other cultures, Victorian explorers were starting to develop a more personal kind of travelogue. In A Woman's Walks, Lady Colin Campbell takes us on a voyage of exploration through her inner landscape - as well as through Italy, France, Switzerland, Austro-Hungary, London, and the English countryside. The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago.

Life in a Bustle

Life in a Bustle [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1782272607
Author:
Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 930 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 1006436

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Life in a Bustle by Book Resume:

At the turn of the (last) century, the world was changing rapidly. Trains were faster, cheaper and more comfortable than ever before. The new craze of bicycling had given men and women unprecedented independence. And the modernisation of telegraphy and the recent invention of the telephone meant that information could be exchanged over huge distances in a mere matter of minutes. And so a frazzled and harried world was ready for the pioneers in thinking, education and imagination to advise and instruct on the perilous "Age of Hurry". Passionate thinkers, committed campaigners, they give invaluable guidance for anyone troubled by the rush and bustle of the early century's information overload. The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago--even if the exhortation to "never drink beer or spirits" has been widely disregarded!

The Right to Fly

The Right to Fly [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1782273182
Author:
Publisher: Pushkin Press
File Size: 1311 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5558272

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The Right to Fly by Book Resume:

A book passionately defending balloon flight for human beings, celebrating the 175th anniversary of The London Library. The first balloon flight with passengers (a sheep, a duck, and a rooster) took place on 19th September 1783. On 4th October 1863, Nadar's giant balloon "Le Géant" had its first ascent; the second (and nearly fatal) was two weeks later. A curiosity both for its content on theories of flight and its author, an important pioneer of French photography and skilled self-publicist, The Right to Fly indicates the interest taken by many at the time in the possibilities of human flight - and the Victorian passion for discoveries and invention. The books in "Found on the Shelves" have been chosen to give a fascinating insight into the treasures that can be found while browsing in The London Library. Now celebrating its 175th anniversary, with over seventeen miles of shelving and more than a million books, The London Library has become an unrivalled archive of the modes, manners and thoughts of each generation which has helped to form it. From essays on dieting in the 1860s to instructions for gentlewomen on trout-fishing, from advice on the ill health caused by the "modern" craze of bicycling to travelogues from Norway, they are as readable and relevant today as they were more than a century ago.