Post Harvest Losses In Rural Urban Value Chains Evidence From Ethiopia

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Post-harvest losses in rural-urban value chains: Evidence from Ethiopia

Post-harvest losses in rural-urban value chains: Evidence from Ethiopia [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
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Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
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Post-harvest losses in rural-urban value chains: Evidence from Ethiopia by , Book Resume:

We study post-harvest losses (PHL) in important and rapidly growing rural-urban value chains in Ethiopia. We analyze self-reported PHL from different value chain agents – farmers, wholesale traders, processors, and retailers – based on unique large-scale data sets for two major commercial commodities, the storable staple teff and the perishable liquid milk. PHL in the most prevalent value chain pathways for teff and milk amount to between 2.2 and 3.3 percent and 2.1 and 4.3 percent of total produced quantities, respectively. We complement these findings with primary data from urban food retailers for more than 4,000 commodities. Estimates of PHL from this research overall are found to be significantly lower than is commonly assumed. We further find that the emerging modern retail sector in Ethiopia is characterized by half the level of PHL than are observed in the traditional retail sector. This is likely due to more stringent quality requirements at procurement, sales of more packaged – and therefore better protected – commodities, and better refrigeration, storage, and sales facilities. The further expected expansion of modern retail in these settings should likely lead to a lowering of PHL in food value chains, at least at the retail level.

How big are post-harvest losses in Ethiopia?

How big are post-harvest losses in Ethiopia? [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Minten, Bart,Engida, Ermias,Tamru, Seneshaw
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
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How big are post-harvest losses in Ethiopia? by Minten, Bart,Engida, Ermias,Tamru, Seneshaw Book Resume:

Based on a unique large-scale data set on teff production and marketing, Ethiopia’s most important cash crop, we study post-harvest losses in rural-urban value chains, specifically between producers and urban retailers in the capital, Addis Ababa. We analyze the structure of the value chain and rely on self-reported losses by different value chain agents (farmers, wholesale traders, and retailers). We estimate that post-harvest losses in the most prevalent pathway in the rural-urban value chain, amount to between 2.2 and 3.3 percent of total harvested quantities. The variation in this figure depends on the storage facilities used and on assumed losses during transport at the farm. These losses are significantly lower than is commonly assumed for staple foods, possibly because of the rather good storage characteristics of teff due to its low moisture content. These findings, nonetheless, point to the need to gather further solid evidence on post-harvest losses in staple foods in these settings to ensure appropriate policies and investments

IFPRI publications related to nutrition in Ethiopia

IFPRI publications related to nutrition in Ethiopia [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Capstone 2025
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
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IFPRI publications related to nutrition in Ethiopia by Capstone 2025 Book Resume:

The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) began research activities in Ethiopia in the 1980s to assess the root causes of drought-related food-production shortages and support adoption of appropriate policy responses. IFPRI’s rigorous empirical research contributed to a broader understanding of economic development processes in Ethiopia and built capacity to conduct such research on a national scale. Working with many long-standing partners, IFPRI evaluated strategies for achieving sustainable agricultural growth, investment in agricultural research, the provision of safety nets to strengthen resilience, prioritization of nutrition interventions for women and children, property rights, and management of natural resources, among other goals. Evidence from this and other work informed programs and initiatives to improve food and nutrition security for vulnerable people.

Fasting, food, and farming: Evidence from Ethiopian producers on the link of food taboos with dairy development

Fasting, food, and farming: Evidence from Ethiopian producers on the link of food taboos with dairy development [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: D’Haene, Eline,Vandevelde, Senne,Minten, Bart
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
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Fasting, food, and farming: Evidence from Ethiopian producers on the link of food taboos with dairy development by D’Haene, Eline,Vandevelde, Senne,Minten, Bart Book Resume:

The impact of food taboos – often because of religion – is understudied. In Ethiopia, religious fasting by Orthodox Christians is assumed to be an important impediment for the sustainable development of a competitive dairy sector and desired higher milk consumption, especially by children. However, evidence is limited. Relying on unique data, we shed light on three major issues. First, we observe that the average annual number of fasting days that Orthodox adults are effectively adhering to is 140, less than commonly cited averages. Using this as an estimate for extrapolation, fasting is estimated to reduce annual dairy consumption by approximately 12 percent nationally. Second, farms adapt to declining milk demand during fasting by increased processing of milk into storable products – fasting contributes to larger price swings for these products. We further note continued sales of milk by non-remote farmers and reduced production – by adjusting lactation times for dairy animals – for remote farmers. Third, fasting is mostly associated with increased milk consumption by the children of dairy farmers, seemingly because of excess milk availability during fasting periods. Our results suggest that fasting habits are not a major explanation for the observed poor performance of Ethiopia’s dairy sector nor low milk consumption by children. To reduce the impact of fasting on the dairy sector in Ethiopia further, investment is called for in improved milk processing, storage, and infrastructure facilities.

Food safety, modernization, and food prices: Evidence from milk in Ethiopia

Food safety, modernization, and food prices: Evidence from milk in Ethiopia [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Minten, Bart,Habte, Yetimwork,Baye, Kaleab,Tamru, Seneshaw
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
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Food safety, modernization, and food prices: Evidence from milk in Ethiopia by Minten, Bart,Habte, Yetimwork,Baye, Kaleab,Tamru, Seneshaw Book Resume:

Modern marketing arrangements are increasingly being implemented to assure improved food quality and safety. However, it is not well known how these modern marketing arrangements perform in early stages of roll-out. We study this issue in the case of rural-urban milk value chains in Ethiopia, where modern processing companies – selling branded pasteurized milk – and modern retail have expanded rapidly in recent years. We find overall that the adoption levels of hygienic practices and practices leading to safer milk by dairy producers in Ethiopia are low and that there are no significant differences between traditional and modern milk value chains. While suppliers to modern processing companies are associated with more formal milk testing, they do not obtain price premiums for the adoption of improved practices nor do they obtain higher prices overall. Rewards to suppliers by modern processing companies are mostly done through non-price mechanisms. At the urban retail level, we surprisingly find that there are no price differences between branded pasteurized and raw milk and that modern retailers sell pasteurized milk at lower prices, ceteris paribus. Modern value chains to better reward hygiene and food safety in these settings are therefore called for.

Accelerating progress in improving diets and nutrition in Ethiopia

Accelerating progress in improving diets and nutrition in Ethiopia [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Baye, Kaleab,Hirvonen, Kalle
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
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Accelerating progress in improving diets and nutrition in Ethiopia by Baye, Kaleab,Hirvonen, Kalle Book Resume:

Ethiopia has witnessed significant reductions in child mortality, undernutrition, and communicable diseases, but more substantial and faster progress is still needed. The rise in obesity and in noncommunicable diseases, particularly in urban areas, is alarming and requires urgent policy and programmatic attention. Unhealthy diets drive both undernutrition and obesity and are the underlying cause of significant proportion of both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Maintaining the relatively high breastfeeding practices and increasing the diversity of diets will be critical to improving nutrition in Ethiopia. Implementation of effective nutrition messaging that shapes consumer behavior to adopt healthy dietary patterns, while bridging gaps in both the reach and the quality of such messaging is warranted. The health extension program, which is the cornerstone of the transformation of the health sector, may need to be redesigned in a way that improves its reach and the quality of the services it provides and minimizes the risk of burnout of frontline health workers. Interventions focusing on making healthy diets available, affordable, and accessible are urgently needed.

Taxation in a Low-Income Economy

Taxation in a Low-Income Economy [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1134018932
Author: Channing Arndt,Finn Tarp
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 912 KB
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Taxation in a Low-Income Economy by Channing Arndt,Finn Tarp Book Resume:

This volume contains a stimulating collection of analytical studies focusing on taxation in Mozambique. It tells a compelling story about tax systems in a low income economy increasingly integrated into the world trading system, but very much dependent on foreign trade taxes and international development assistance. Key issues covered include: A better understanding of the historical background of tax reforms in a representative African economy (Mozambique) along with an assessment of taxation performance in a comparative perspective. Insights into the practice and implications of tax policy, both from the perspective of the consumer and the firm level. Discussion of the existing institutional set up in which tax policy and its enforcement operate and analyses of current tax practices. Taxation themes at the border and at domestic level, which are typical for low-income economies, characterized by a high degree of reliance on foreign trade taxes. This volume is meant as a guide for developing country government officials and professional aid practitioners as well as academics, researchers and tax policy analysts working in the development field. It will also be of interest to students of development with a special interest in public finance issues in poor countries and how to improve policy-effectiveness, including tax policy, in a developing country setting.

Food Security in a Food Abundant World

Food Security in a Food Abundant World [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1785602144
Author: ,
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
File Size: 392 KB
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Food Security in a Food Abundant World by , Book Resume:

Food insecurity can result from various events. While an adequate food supply is necessary, when food is abundant the entitlement to food is limited by endowments, the ability to trade, and potential transfers. This volume considers trends in economic growth, agricultural productivity growth, income and other policies that shape food security.

Postharvest losses and the impact of reusable plastic container technology on profitability: Evidence from tomato traders in Nigeria

Postharvest losses and the impact of reusable plastic container technology on profitability: Evidence from tomato traders in Nigeria [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Aghadi, Crystal N.,Balana, Bedru,Ogunniyi, Adebayo
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
File Size: 413 KB
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Read Count: 421879

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Postharvest losses and the impact of reusable plastic container technology on profitability: Evidence from tomato traders in Nigeria by Aghadi, Crystal N.,Balana, Bedru,Ogunniyi, Adebayo Book Resume:

Postharvest loss is a major challenge in food production and supply chains in developing countries. Using primary data from fresh tomato traders in Lagos, Nigeria, and endogenous switching econometric modelling, this study investigates the effects of reusable plastic containers (RPC) technology on traders’ net profits and the factors determining the adoption of the technology. Results indicate that the trader’s position along the supply chain, income level, seasonality, sales frequency, and technology affordability positively influence their adoption decision. We found that the use of RPC technology significantly increases traders’ net profits. The counterfactual impact analysis indicates that traders who adopted RPC would have earned 7 percent lower net profits had they not used RPC. Conversely, non-adopters would have increased their net profit by 5 percent had they adopted the technology. However, heterogenous treatment effects were observed due to heterogeneities among the adopters.

OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025

OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025 [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 9264253238
Author: OECD,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: OECD Publishing
File Size: 1027 KB
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Read Count: 5831115

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OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025 by OECD,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Book Resume:

The OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025 provides an assessment of prospects for the coming decade of the agricultural commodity markets across 41 countries and 12 regions, including OECD countries and key agricultural producers, such as India, China, Brazil, the Russian Federation and Argentina.

2017 Global Food Policy Report

2017 Global Food Policy Report [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0896292525
Author: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
File Size: 687 KB
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Read Count: 9456506

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2017 Global Food Policy Report by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Book Resume:

IFPRI’s flagship report reviews the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2016, and highlights challenges and opportunities for 2017 at the global and regional levels. This year’s report looks at the impact of rapid urban growth on food security and nutrition, and considers how food systems can be reshaped to benefit both urban and rural populations.

Realizing Africa's Rice Promise

Realizing Africa's Rice Promise [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1845938127
Author: Marco C S Wopereis,David E Johnson,Nourollah Ahmadi,Eric Tollens,Abdulai Jalloh
Publisher: CABI
File Size: 612 KB
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Read Count: 226502

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Realizing Africa's Rice Promise by Marco C S Wopereis,David E Johnson,Nourollah Ahmadi,Eric Tollens,Abdulai Jalloh Book Resume:

At a time when Africa's food security stands threatened, Realizing Africa's Rice Promise provides a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art research and recommendations for dealing with future challenges. With contributions from the key scientists working on rice in Africa, this volume addresses policy, genetic diversity and improvement, sustainable productivity enhancement, innovations and value chains. The book is useful for researchers, policy makers, agricultural ministries, donors, regional and sub-regional organizations, non-governmental development organizations and universities.

From subsistence to profit

From subsistence to profit [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0896295583
Author: Fan, Shenggen,Brzeska, Joanna,Keyzer, Michiel,Halsema, Alex
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
File Size: 1742 KB
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Read Count: 2260455

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From subsistence to profit by Fan, Shenggen,Brzeska, Joanna,Keyzer, Michiel,Halsema, Alex Book Resume:

This food policy report presents a typology of the diverse livelihood strategies and development pathways for smallholder farmers in developing countries, and offers policy recommendations to help potentially profitable smallholders meet emerging risks and challenges. Main Findings Smallholder farmers in developing countries play a key role in meeting the future food demands of a growing and increasingly rich and urbanized population. However, smallholders are not a homogeneous group that should be supported at all costs. Whereas some smallholder farmers have the potential to undertake profitable commercial activities in the agricultural sector, others should be supported in exiting agriculture and seeking nonfarm employment opportunities. For smallholder farmers with profit potential, their ability to be successful is hampered by such challenges as climate change, price shocks, limited financing options, and inadequate access to healthy and nutritious food. By overcoming these challenges, smallholders can move from subsistence to commercially oriented agricultural systems, increase their profits, and operate at an efficient scale—thereby helping to do their part in feeding the world’s hungry.

Making Global Value Chains Work for Development

Making Global Value Chains Work for Development [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1464801622
Author: Daria Taglioni,Deborah Winkler
Publisher: World Bank Publications
File Size: 1011 KB
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Making Global Value Chains Work for Development by Daria Taglioni,Deborah Winkler Book Resume:

Economic, technological, and political shifts as well as changing business strategies have driven firms to unbundle production processes and disperse them across countries. Thanks to these changes, developing countries can now increase their participation in global value chains (GVCs) and thus become more competitive in agriculture, manufacturing and services. This is a paradigm shift from the 20th century when countries had to build the entire supply chain domestically to become competitive internationally. For policymakers, the focus is on boosting domestic value added and improving access to resources and technology while advancing development goals. However, participating in global value chains does not automatically improve living standards and social conditions in a country. This requires not only improving the quality and quantity of production factors and redressing market failures, but also engineering equitable distributions of opportunities and outcomes - including employment, wages, work conditions, economic rights, gender equality, economic security, and protecting the environment. The internationalization of production processes helps with very few of these development challenges. Following this perspective, Making Global Value Chains Work for Development offers a strategic framework, analytical tools, and policy options to address this challenge. The book conceptualizes GVCs and makes it easier for policymakers and practitioners to discuss them and their implications for development. It shows why GVCs require fresh thinking; it serves as a repository of analytical tools; and it proposes a strategic framework to guide policymakers in identifying the key objectives of GVC participation and in selecting suitable economic strategies to achieve them.

Cities, value chains, and dairy production in Ethiopia

Cities, value chains, and dairy production in Ethiopia [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Vandercasteelen, Joachim,Minten, Bart,Tamru, Seneshaw
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
File Size: 738 KB
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Read Count: 5406913

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Cities, value chains, and dairy production in Ethiopia by Vandercasteelen, Joachim,Minten, Bart,Tamru, Seneshaw Book Resume:

This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in dairy production in the highland production area around the capital of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. We look at how urban proximity – defined as the travel time from the farm to the central market of Addis Ababa – affects the production decisions of Ethiopian dairy farmers. We sampled 870 households from the major rural production zones around Addis Ababa, where villages were stratified according to their distance to Addis Ababa. Using an instrumental variable approach, we find evidence of strong spatial heterogeneity in dairy milk productivity in Ethiopia. With each additional hour of travel time, the milk productivity per cow is reduced by almost 1 liter per day, a reduction by 26 percent on average. This spatial heterogeneity in milk productivity reflects a pronounced spatial variation in dairy production decisions (producing liquid milk or processed dairy products), the application of modern inputs, and marketing. When trying to disentangle the mechanisms through which urban proximity affects dairy productivity, we show that the effect of travel time mainly runs through farmers’ inclusion into ‘modern’ value chains and more specifically through their access to commercial milk buyers. This finding holds when we control for prices, indicating that access to commercial value chains are an important determinant of dairy productivity. However, as only a limited number of farmers now have access to such value chains in these settings, measures to make dairy value chains more inclusive to remote farmers can have important economic development benefits for them.

OECD-FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains

OECD-FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 9264251057
Author: OECD,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: OECD Publishing
File Size: 1882 KB
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Read Count: 8253602

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OECD-FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains by OECD,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Book Resume:

OECD and FAO have developed this guidance to help enterprises observe standards of responsible business conduct and undertake due diligence along agricultural supply chains in order to ensure that their operations contribute to sustainable development.

Harvesting Prosperity

Harvesting Prosperity [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1464814295
Author: Keith Fuglie,Madhur Gautam,Aparajita Goyal,William F. Maloney
Publisher: World Bank Publications
File Size: 1467 KB
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Read Count: 9802264

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Harvesting Prosperity by Keith Fuglie,Madhur Gautam,Aparajita Goyal,William F. Maloney Book Resume:

Back cover blurb Rising agricultural productivity has driven improvements in living standards for millennia. Today, redoubling that effort in developing countries is critical to reducing extreme poverty, ensuring food security for an increasing global population, and adapting to changes in climate. This volume presents fresh analysis on global trends and sources of productivity growth in agriculture and offers new perspectives on the drivers of that growth. It argues that gains from the reallocation of land and labor are not as promising as believed, so policy needs to focus more on the generation and dissemination of new technologies, which requires stepping up national research efforts. Yet, in many of the poorest nations, a serious research spending gap has emerged precisely at the time when the challenges faced by agriculture are intensifying. The book focuses on how this problem can be redressed in the public sector, as well as on reforms aimed at mobilizing new private sector actors and value chains, particularly creating a better enabling environment, reforming trade regulations, introducing new products, and strengthening intellectual property rights. On the demand side, the book examines what recent research reveals about policies to reduce the barriers impeding smallholder farmers from adopting new technologies. Harvesting Prosperity is the fourth volume of the World Bank Productivity Project, which seeks to bring frontier thinking on the measurement and determinants of productivity to global policy makers. “As rightly argued by the authors, growth in agricultural productivity is the essential instrument to promote development in low-income agriculture-based countries. Achieving this requires research and development, upgrading of universities, reinforcement of farmer capacities, removal of constraints to adoption, and the development of inclusive value chains with interlinked contracts. As important, such efforts also need to be placed within a context of comprehensive agricultural, rural, and structural transformations. However, in many countries implementation of the requisite policies has been lagging. This book, with contributions from many top experts in the field, provides the most up-to-date presentation of this argument and explains in detail how to successfully put its ideas into practice. Governments, the private sector, and civil society organizations need to study it carefully to turn the promise of agriculture for development into a reality.“ Alain de Janvry and Elisabeth Sadoulet Professors of the Graduate School, University of California at Berkeley

Markets and Rural Poverty

Markets and Rural Poverty [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1134074573
Author: Jonathan Mitchell,Christopher Coles
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1929 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 2419110

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Markets and Rural Poverty by Jonathan Mitchell,Christopher Coles Book Resume:

This book explores the place of poor people within a rich variety of value chains, focusing upon lagging, rural regions in Africa and Asia, and how they can 'upgrade' within such chains. Upgrading is a key concept for value chain analysis and refers to the acquisition of technological capabilities and market linkages that enable firms to improve their competitiveness and move into higher-value activities. The authors examine a range of evidence to assess whether the 'bottom billion' people, living mainly in the rural areas of low-income countries, can improve their position through productive strategies and, if so, how? They propose an innovative conceptual framework of value chain upgrading for some of the most marginal producers in the poorest local economies. They demonstrate how interventions can improve poverty and the environment for poor people supplying a wide range of services and agricultural and food products to local, regional and global markets. This analysis is based on empirical research conducted in Senegal, Mali, Tanzania, India, Nepal, Philippines and Vietnam. The main focus is on poverty, environment and gender outcomes of upgrading interventions, and represents one of the key challenges of contemporary development economics.

Working with Smallholders

Working with Smallholders [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1464812780
Author: International Finance Corporation
Publisher: World Bank Publications
File Size: 1545 KB
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Read Count: 6264286

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Working with Smallholders by International Finance Corporation Book Resume:

This handbook addresses the challenges that agribusiness companies face when working with smallholder suppliers in their value chain.

Postharvest Extension and Capacity Building for the Developing World

Postharvest Extension and Capacity Building for the Developing World [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1351631616
Author: Majeed Mohammed,Vijay Yadav Tokala
Publisher: CRC Press
File Size: 770 KB
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Read Count: 4220630

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Postharvest Extension and Capacity Building for the Developing World by Majeed Mohammed,Vijay Yadav Tokala Book Resume:

It is estimated that around 1.3 billion tons per year of food produced for human consumption, which is about one-third of all food produced, is either lost or wasted globally. Reduction of the postharvest losses is being considered as one of the sustainable ways to ensure world food security. Postharvest Extension and Capacity Building for the Developing World provides information on postharvest extension/outreach programs, capacity building, and practical methodologies for postharvest extension professionals and food science teachers, food processing trainers, and outreach specialists who work in the field. The book provides information on training of postharvest trainers, food loss assessment methods, capacity building in universities and agro-industry, distance education methods, models for cost effective postharvest/food processing extension work, success stories, and lessons learned from past projects and programs. The book is divided into four sections. Section I explains postharvest loss assessments methods, Section II is on capacity building, and Sections III and IV focus on training and postharvest extension models. Food loss assessment methodologies are highlighted from several high-profile institutions and it is envisioned that researchers and postharvest extension personnel will benefit from the development and field testing of a hybrid methodology, incorporating the strengths and utilizing the best practices from each of the methodologies in current use. Chapters cover postharvest extension work and capacity building in a wide range of regions.