Ottoman Puritanism And Its Discontents

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Ottoman Puritanism and its Discontents

Ottoman Puritanism and its Discontents [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192508105
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Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Ottoman Puritanism and its Discontents by Book Resume:

Ottoman Puritanism and Its Discontents: Aḥmad al-Āqḥiṣarī and the Qaḍīzādelis considers the emergence of a new activist Sufism in the Muslim world from the sixteenth century onwards, which emphasized personal responsibility for putting God's guidance into practice. Mustapha Sheikh focuses specifically on developments at the centre of the Ottoman Empire, but also considers both how they might have been influenced by the wider connections and engagements of learned and holy men and how their influence might have been spread from the Ottoman Empire to South Asia in particular. The immediate focus is on the Qāḍīzādeli movement which flourished in Istanbul from the 1620s to the 1680s and which inveighed against corrupt scholars and heterodox Sufis. Up to now this movement has been seen as proto-Wahhābī, proto-fundamentalist or otherwise retrograde. By studying the relationship between Aḥmad al-Rūmī al-Āqḥiṣārī's magisterial Majālis al-abrār and Qāḍīzādeli beliefs, Sheikh places both author and the movement in an Ottoman, Ḥanafī, and Sufi milieu. Moreover, the study suggests that the impact of the Majālis al-abrār on the Qāḍīzādelis had the outcome in the second half of the seventeenth century of increasing the violence of their activists, a development which ultimately led to their downfall.

Puritanism and Its Discontents

Puritanism and Its Discontents [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 9780874138177
Author: Laura Lunger Knoppers
Publisher: University of Delaware Press
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Puritanism and Its Discontents by Laura Lunger Knoppers Book Resume:

By tracing core discontents, the essays restore the anxiety-ridden radical nature of Puritanism, helping to account for its force in the seventeenth century and the popular and scholarly interest that it continues to evoke. Innovative and challenging in scope and argument, the volume should be of interest to scholars of early modern British and American history, literature, culture, and religion."--BOOK JACKET.

Ottoman Sunnism

Ottoman Sunnism [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1474443346
Author: Erginbas Vefa Erginbas
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
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Ottoman Sunnism by Erginbas Vefa Erginbas Book Resume:

Addressing the contested nature of Ottoman Sunnism from the 14th to the early 20th century, this book draws on diverse perspectives across the empire. Closely reading intellectual, social and mystical traditions within the empire, it clarifies the possibilities that existed within Ottoman Sunnism, presenting it as a complex, nuanced and evolving concept. The authors in this volume rescue Ottoman Sunnism from an increasingly bipolar definition that seeks to present the Ottomans as enshrining a clearly defined orthodoxy, suppressing its contrasting heterodoxy. Challenging established notions that have marked the existing literature, the chapters contribute significantly not only to the ongoing debate on the Ottoman age of confessionalisation but also to the study of religion in the Ottoman context.

Ezra and the Second Wilderness

Ezra and the Second Wilderness [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192509020
Author: Philip Y. Yoo
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Ezra and the Second Wilderness by Philip Y. Yoo Book Resume:

Ezra and the Second Wilderness addresses the relationship between Ezra, the Ezra Memoir, and the Pentateuch. Tracing the growth of the Ezra Memoir and its incorporation into Ezra-Nehemiah, Philip Y. Yoo discusses the literary strategies utilized by some of the composers and redactors operating in the post-exilic period. After the strata in Ezra 7-10 and Nehemiah 8-10 are identified, what emerges as the base Ezra Memoir is a coherent account of Ezra's leadership of the exiles from Babylon over the course of a single year, one that is intricately modelled on the multiple presentations of Moses and the Israelite wilderness preserved in the Pentateuch. Through discussion of the detected influences, allusions, and omissions between the Pentateuch and the Ezra Memoir, Yoo shows that the Ezra Memoir demonstrates a close understanding of its source materials and received traditions as it constructs the Babylonian returnees as the inheritors of torah and, in turn, the true and unparalleled successors of the Israelite cult. This study presents the Ezra Memoir as a sophisticated example of 'biblical' interpretation in the Second Temple period. It also suggests that the Ezra Memoir has access to the Pentateuch in only its constituent parts. Acknowledging not only the antiquity but also efficacy of its prototypes, the Ezra Memoir employs a variety of hermeneutical strategies in order to harmonize the competing claims of its authoritative sources. In closing the temporal gap between these sources and its own contemporary time, the Ezra Memoir grants authority to the utopic past yet also projects its own vision for the proper worship of Israel's deity.

A. J. Appasamy and his Reading of Rāmānuja

A. J. Appasamy and his Reading of Rāmānuja [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192508954
Author: Brian Philip Dunn
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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A. J. Appasamy and his Reading of Rāmānuja by Brian Philip Dunn Book Resume:

In this work, Brian Philip Dunn focuses on the South Indian theologian A. J. Appaswamy's 'embodiment theology.' This is the first book on Appaswamy, a not insignificant Indian, Christian theologian. This study argues for the distinctive theological voice of Appaswamy who develops a theology strongly influenced by the medieval Hindu theologian (or 'bhakti philosopher') Rāmānuja, in particular offering a reading of the Gospel of John. Dunn shows how Appaswamy sees the Christian God in Rāmānuja's theology and how his theology, particularly about the presence of God in the icon in a temple, can become a heuristic device through which to understand the fourth Gospel in the context of its own time. This allows the reader to develop a rooted Christology that otherwise would remain hidden. Through Rāmānuja, Appaswamy can contribute to a constructive and important Theology that grounds the text and ideas of the incarnation in the Jewish context, particularly about priestly atonement. This reading of Rāmānuja allows us to see a Christology in the Christian text that would otherwise not have been seen.

Deuteronomy 28 and the Aramaic Curse Tradition

Deuteronomy 28 and the Aramaic Curse Tradition [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192539027
Author: Laura Quick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Deuteronomy 28 and the Aramaic Curse Tradition by Laura Quick Book Resume:

This study considers the relationship of Deuteronomy 28 to the curse traditions of the ancient Near East. It focuses on the linguistic and cultural means of the transmission of these traditions to the book of Deuteronomy. Laura Quick examines a broad range of materials including Old Aramaic inscriptions, attempting to show the value of these Northwest Semitic texts as primary sources to reorient our view of an ancient world usually seen through a biblical or Mesopotamian lens. By studying these inscriptions alongside the biblical text, Deuteronomy 28 and the Aramaic Curse Tradition increases our knowledge of the early history and function of the curses in Deuteronomy 28. This has implications for our understanding of the date of the composition of the book of Deuteronomy, and the reasons behind its production. The ritual realm which stands behind the use of curses and the formation of covenants in the biblical world is also explored, arguing that the interplay between orality and literacy is essential to understanding the function and form of the curses in Deuteronomy. This book contributes to our understanding of the book of Deuteronomy and its place within the literary history of ancient Israel and Judah, with implications for the composition of the Pentateuch or Torah as a whole.

Qur'an of the Oppressed

Qur'an of the Oppressed [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192516493
Author: Shadaab Rahemtulla
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Qur'an of the Oppressed by Shadaab Rahemtulla Book Resume:

This study analyses the commentaries of four Muslim intellectuals who have turned to scripture as a liberating text to confront an array of problems, from patriarchy, racism, and empire to poverty and interreligious communal violence. Shadaab Rahemtulla considers the exegeses of the South African Farid Esack (b. 1956), the Indian Asghar Ali Engineer (1939-2013), the African American Amina Wadud (b. 1952), and the Pakistani American Asma Barlas (b. 1950). Rahemtulla examines how these intellectuals have been able to expound this seventh-century Arabian text in a socially liberating way, addressing their own lived realities of oppression, and thus contexts that are worlds removed from that of the text's immediate audience. Through a close reading of their works, he underlines the importance of both the ethico-social content of the Qur'an and their usage of new and innovative reading practices. This work provides a rich analysis of the thought-ways of specific Muslim intellectuals, thereby substantiating a broadly framed school of thought. Rahemtulla draws out their specific and general importance without displaying an uncritical sympathy. He sheds light on the impact of modern exegetical commentary which is more self-consciously concerned with historical context and present realities. In a mutually reinforcing way, this work thus illuminates both the role of agency and hermeneutical approaches in modern Islamic thought.

Rethinking Ibn 'Arabi

Rethinking Ibn 'Arabi [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0190684526
Author: Gregory A. Lipton
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Rethinking Ibn 'Arabi by Gregory A. Lipton Book Resume:

The thirteenth century mystic Ibn `Arabi was the foremost Sufi theorist of the premodern era. For more than a century, Western scholars and esotericists have heralded his universalism, arguing that he saw all contemporaneous religions as equally valid. In Rethinking Ibn `Arabi, Gregory Lipton calls this image into question and throws into relief how Ibn `Arabi's discourse is inseparably intertwined with the absolutist vision of his own religious milieu--that is, the triumphant claim that Islam fulfilled, superseded, and therefore abrogated all previous revealed religions. Lipton juxtaposes Ibn `Arabi's absolutist conception with the later reception of his ideas, exploring how they have been read, appropriated, and universalized within the reigning interpretive field of Perennial Philosophy in the study of Sufism. The contours that surface through this comparative analysis trace the discursive practices that inform Ibn `Arabi's Western reception back to the eighteenth and nineteenth century study of "authentic" religion, where European ethno-racial superiority was wielded against the Semitic Other-both Jewish and Muslim. Lipton argues that supersessionist models of exclusivism are buried under contemporary Western constructions of religious authenticity in ways that ironically mirror Ibn `Arabi's medieval absolutism.

Historical Dictionary of Turkey

Historical Dictionary of Turkey [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1538102250
Author: Metin Heper,Duygu Öztürk-Tunçel,Nur Bilge Criss
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
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Historical Dictionary of Turkey by Metin Heper,Duygu Öztürk-Tunçel,Nur Bilge Criss Book Resume:

This fourth edition of Historical Dictionary of Turkey contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 900 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, politics, economy, foreign relations, religion, and culture.

The Human Condition in Hilary of Poitiers

The Human Condition in Hilary of Poitiers [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 019252934X
Author: Isabella Image
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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The Human Condition in Hilary of Poitiers by Isabella Image Book Resume:

While he is more commonly known for his Trinitiarian works and theology, this study assesses mid-fourth-century bishop Hilary of Poitiers' view of the human condition. Isabella Image shows that the Commentary on Psalm 118 is more closely related to Origen's than previously thought. Image explains how his articulations of sin, body and soul, the Fall and the will all parallel or echo Origen's views in this work, but not necessarily in his Matthew Commentary. Hilary has a doctrine of original sin ('sins of our origin', peccata originis), which differs from the individual personal sins and for which we are individually accountable. He also articulates a fallen will which is in thrall to disobedience and needs God's help, something God always gives as long as we show the initiative. Hilary's idea of the fallen will may have developed in tangent with Origen's thought, which uses Stoic ideas on the process of human action in order to articulate the constraints on purely rational responses. Hilary in turn influences Augustine, who writes against the Pelagian bishop Julian of Eclanum citing Hilary as an example of an earlier writer with original sin. Since Hilary is known to have used Origen's work, and Augustine is known to have used Hilary's, Hilary appears to be one of the stepping-stones between these two great giants of the early church as the doctrines of original sin and the fallen will developed. The Human Condition in Hilary of Poitiers not only identifies Hilary's anthropological thought, but also places it in the current of theological development of the fourth century. It considers reception of Origen in the mid-fourth century, before the criticisms of Epiphanius and the debates in the Egyptian monastic communities. This work also contributes to understanding of the tradition from which Augustine received his doctrine of original sin.

Qur'an of the Oppressed

Qur'an of the Oppressed [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192516493
Author: Shadaab Rahemtulla
Publisher: Oxford University Press
File Size: 551 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6557354

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Qur'an of the Oppressed by Shadaab Rahemtulla Book Resume:

This study analyses the commentaries of four Muslim intellectuals who have turned to scripture as a liberating text to confront an array of problems, from patriarchy, racism, and empire to poverty and interreligious communal violence. Shadaab Rahemtulla considers the exegeses of the South African Farid Esack (b. 1956), the Indian Asghar Ali Engineer (1939-2013), the African American Amina Wadud (b. 1952), and the Pakistani American Asma Barlas (b. 1950). Rahemtulla examines how these intellectuals have been able to expound this seventh-century Arabian text in a socially liberating way, addressing their own lived realities of oppression, and thus contexts that are worlds removed from that of the text's immediate audience. Through a close reading of their works, he underlines the importance of both the ethico-social content of the Qur'an and their usage of new and innovative reading practices. This work provides a rich analysis of the thought-ways of specific Muslim intellectuals, thereby substantiating a broadly framed school of thought. Rahemtulla draws out their specific and general importance without displaying an uncritical sympathy. He sheds light on the impact of modern exegetical commentary which is more self-consciously concerned with historical context and present realities. In a mutually reinforcing way, this work thus illuminates both the role of agency and hermeneutical approaches in modern Islamic thought.

Kierkegaard's Theology of Encounter

Kierkegaard's Theology of Encounter [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192510908
Author: David Lappano
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Kierkegaard's Theology of Encounter by David Lappano Book Resume:

Søren Kierkegaard's Theology of Encounter provides a theoretical framework that brings the unity of Kierkegaard's 'middle period' into relief. David Lappano analyses Kierkegaard's writings between 1846 and 1852 when the socially constructive dimension of his thought comes to prominence, involving two dialectical aspects of religiousness identified by Kierkegaard: they are the edifying and the polemical. How these come together and get worked out in the lives of individuals form the basis of what can be called a Kierkegaardian 'social praxis'. Lappano argues that the tension between the edifying and the polemical can be coherently maintained in a communicative life that is also characteristic of a militant faith. This militant faith and life is presented as a critical guard against absolutisms, fundamentalisms, and intellectual aloofness; but the 'militant' individual is also utterly dependent, in need of edification and critique, and therefore chooses the risk of encountering others, seeking relationships out of a commitment to the development of people and communities in co-operation. Therefore, not only does this dialectic provide readers with an important theoretical framework for understanding Kierkegaard's 'middle period', it is also a valuable resource for a constructive analysis of active social living suitable for theology in the twenty-first century.

Sartre on Sin

Sartre on Sin [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192539752
Author: Kate Kirkpatrick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Sartre on Sin by Kate Kirkpatrick Book Resume:

Sartre on Sin: Between Being and Nothingness argues that Jean-Paul Sartre's early, anti-humanist philosophy is indebted to the Christian doctrine of original sin. On the standard reading, Sartre's most fundamental and attractive idea is freedom: he wished to demonstrate the existence of human freedom, and did so by connecting consciousness with nothingness. Focusing on Being and Nothingness, Kate Kirkpatrick demonstrates that Sartre's concept of nothingness (le néant) has a Christian genealogy which has been overlooked in philosophical and theological discussions of his work. Previous scholars have noted the resemblance between Sartre's and Augustine's ontologies: to name but one shared theme, both thinkers describe the human as the being through which nothingness enters the world. However, there has been no previous in-depth examination of this 'resemblance'. Using historical, exegetical, and conceptual methods, Kirkpatrick demonstrates that Sartre's intellectual formation prior to his discovery of phenomenology included theological elements-especially concerning the compatibility of freedom with sin and grace. After outlining the French Augustinianisms by which Sartre's account of the human as 'between being and nothingness' was informed, Kirkpatrick offers a close reading of Being and Nothingness which shows that the psychological, epistemological, and ethical consequences of Sartre's le néant closely resemble the consequences of its theological predecessor; and that his account of freedom can be read as an anti-theodicy. Sartre on Sin illustrates that Sartre' s insights are valuable resources for contemporary hamartiology.

Maternal Grief in the Hebrew Bible

Maternal Grief in the Hebrew Bible [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192517031
Author: Ekaterina E. Kozlova
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Maternal Grief in the Hebrew Bible by Ekaterina E. Kozlova Book Resume:

Setting out from the observation made in the social sciences that maternal grief can at times be a motor of societal change, Ekaterina E. Kozlova demonstrates that a similar mechanism operates also in the biblical world. Kozlova argues that maternal grief is treated as a model or archetype of grief in biblical and Ancient Near Eastern literature. The work considers three narratives and one poem that illustrate the transformative power of maternal grief in the biblical presentation: Gen 21, Hagar and Ishmael in the desert; 2 Sam 21: 1-14, Rizpah versus King David; 2 Sam 14, the speech of the Tekoite woman; Jer 31: 15-22, Rachel weeping for her children. Although only one of the texts literally refers to a bereaved mother (2 Sam 21 on Rizpah), all four passages draw on the motif of maternal grief, and all four stage some form of societal transformation.

A Redactional Study of the Book of Isaiah 13-23

A Redactional Study of the Book of Isaiah 13-23 [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192548700
Author: Jongkyung Lee
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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A Redactional Study of the Book of Isaiah 13-23 by Jongkyung Lee Book Resume:

A Redactional Study of the Book of Isaiah 13-23 argues that a series of programmatic additions were made to the oracles concerning the nations in Isaiah 13-23 during the late-exilic period by the same circle of writers who were responsible for Isaiah 40-55. These additions were made to create continuity between the ancient oracles against the nations from the Isaiah tradition and the future fate of the same nations as the late-exilic redactor(s) foresaw. The additions portray a two-sided vision concerning the nations. One group of passages depicts a positive turn for certain nations while the other group of passages continues to pronounce doom against the remaining nations. This double-sided vision is set out first in Isaiah 14 surrounding the famous taunt against the fallen tyrant. 14:1-2, before the taunt, paints the broad picture of the future return of the exiles and the attachment of the gentiles to the people of Israel. After the taunt and other sayings of YHWH against his enemies, 14:26-27 extends the sphere of the underlying theme of 14:4b-25a, namely YHWH's judgement against boastful and tyrannical power(s), to all nations and the whole earth. The two sides of this vision are then applied accordingly to the rest of the oracles concerning nations in chapters 13-23. To the nations that have experienced similar disasters as the people of Israel, words of hope in line with 14:1-2 were given. To the nations that still possessed some prominence and reasons to be proud, words of doom in line with 14:26-27 were decreed.

Preserving Islamic Tradition

Preserving Islamic Tradition [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0190251794
Author: Nathan Spannaus
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Preserving Islamic Tradition by Nathan Spannaus Book Resume:

The end of the eighteenth century was a transformational period for the Muslim communities of the Russian Empire and their relationship with the tsarist state. Though they had been under Russian rule since the sixteenth century, it was at this time that they were incorporated into the imperial bureaucracy, most significantly through the founding of an official hierarchy for the Islamic religious scholars in 1788. The introduction of a state-backed structure for Muslim religious institutions altered Islamic religious authority and, in turn, religious discourse. One of the major figures to emerge from this new context was Abu Nasr Qursawi (1776-1812). A controversial figure who was condemned for heresy in Bukhara in 1808, Qursawi put forward a sweeping reform of the Islamic scholarly tradition. Focusing on taqlid, the principle of conformity to established doctrine, Qursawi argued that its overuse had weakened scholarship in the areas of Islamic law (fiqh) and theology (kalam) and undermined scholars' ability to serve as religious guides. In Preserving Islamic Tradition, Nathan Spannaus presents the first detailed analysis of Qursawi's reformist project, both in its contours and broad historical setting. Spannaus shows how state control of Muslim institutions impacted religious discourse, but also how it altered the entire religious environment into the twentieth century. Addressing issues of modernity, secularity, tradition, and intellectual history, Preserving Islamic Tradition demonstrates how the interaction with a European imperial state transformed the Islamic tradition, both directly and indirectly, and elicited new forms of religious thought and discourse.

Making Sense of Old Testament Genocide

Making Sense of Old Testament Genocide [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0192539000
Author: Christian Hofreiter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Making Sense of Old Testament Genocide by Christian Hofreiter Book Resume:

The divine commands to annihilate the seven nations living in Canaan (to 'devote them to destruction', herem in Biblical Hebrew) are perhaps the most morally troubling texts of the Hebrew and Christian bibles. Making Sense of Old Testament Genocide: Christian Interpretations of Herem Passages addreses the challenges these texts pose. It presents the various ways in which interpreters from the first century to the twenty-first have attempted to make sense of them. The most troubling approach was no doubt to read them as divine sanction and inspiration for violence and war: the analysis of the use of herem texts in the crusades, the inquisition, and various colonial conquests illustrates this violent way of reading the texts, which has such alarming contemporary relevance. Three additional approaches can also be traced to antiquity, viz. pre-critical, non-literal, and divine-command-theory readings. Finally, critics of Christianity from antiquity via the Enlightenment to today have referenced herem texts: their critical voices are included as well. Christian Hofreiter combines a presentation of a wide range of historical sources with careful analysis that scrutinizes the arguments made and locates the texts in their wider contexts. Influential contributions of such well-known figures as Augustine, Origen, Gregory the Great, Thomas Aquinas, and John Calvin are included, as well as those of critics such as Marcion, Celsus and Matthew Tindal, and less widely known texts such as crusading histories, songs and sermons, colonial conquest accounts, and inquisition manuals. The book thus sheds new light on the ways in which these texts have shaped the thoughts and actions of their readers through the centuries, and offers pertinent insights into how readers might be able to make sense of them today.

American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 36-3

American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 36-3 [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Robert Hefner, James Edmonds, Meryem Zaman,Omar Anchassi, Imad Jafar, Muneeza Rizvi, Faraz Shaikh,Nicole Correri, Mohammad Dawood Sofi, Gowhar Quadir Wani
Publisher: International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT)
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American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 36-3 by Robert Hefner, James Edmonds, Meryem Zaman,Omar Anchassi, Imad Jafar, Muneeza Rizvi, Faraz Shaikh,Nicole Correri, Mohammad Dawood Sofi, Gowhar Quadir Wani Book Resume:

Professor Timothy Daniels and his colleagues, Meryem Zaman, Robert Hefner, and James Edmonds, chose AJISS for the publication of their important and timely research. This issue showcases leading and emerging anthropologists who have come together to address the layers of misrepresentation and marginalization that various Muslim groups experience. Each article has been independently reviewed and are ably introduced by Professor Timothy Daniels. Finally, AJISS' Editorial Team takes this opportunity to invite scholars of Islam as well as those of Muslim societies focused on Islamic thought and Muslim practice to consider submitting their collected papers to AJISS for special issues.

The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam

The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 019088634X
Author: Frank Griffel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam by Frank Griffel Book Resume:

Scholars have come to recognize the importance of classical Islamic philosophy both in its own right and in its preservation of and engagement with Greek philosophical ideas. At the same time, the period immediately following the so-called classical era has been considered a sort of dark age, in which Islamic thought entered a long decline. In this monumental new work, Frank Griffel seeks to overturn this conventional wisdom, arguing that what he calls the "post-classical" period has been unjustly maligned and neglected by previous generations of scholars. The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam is a comprehensive study of the far-reaching changes that led to a re-shaping of the philosophical discourse in Islam during the twelfth century. Earlier Western scholars thought that Islam's engagement with the tradition of Greek philosophy ended during that century. More recent analyses suggest that Islamic thinkers instead integrated Greek thought into the genre of rationalist Muslim theology (kal=am). Griffel argues that even this new view misses a key point. In addition to the integration of Greek ideas into kal=am, Muslim theologians picked up the discourse of classical philosophy in Islam (falsafa) and began to produce books in the tradition of Plato, Aristotle, and Avicennaa new and oft-misunderstood genre they called ".hikma"in which they left aside theological concerns. They wrote in both genres, kal=am and .hikma, and the same writers argued for opposing teachings on the nature of God, the world's creation, and the afterlife depending on the genre in which they were writing. Griffel shows how careful attention to genre demonstrates both the coherence and ambiguity of this new philosophical approach. A work of extraordinary breadth and depth, The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam offers a detailed, insightful history of philosophy in Iraq, Iran, and Central Asia during the twelfth century. It will be essential reading for anyone interested in the history of philosophy or the history of Islam.

Coptic Christianity in Ottoman Egypt

Coptic Christianity in Ottoman Egypt [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0190453990
Author: Febe Armanios
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Coptic Christianity in Ottoman Egypt by Febe Armanios Book Resume:

In this book, Febe Armanios explores Coptic religious life in Ottoman Egypt (1517-1798), focusing closely on manuscripts housed in Coptic archives. Ottoman Copts frequently turned to religious discourses, practices, and rituals as they dealt with various transformations in the first centuries of Ottoman rule. These included the establishment of a new political regime, changes within communal leadership structures (favoring lay leaders over clergy), the economic ascent of the archons (lay elites), and developments in the Copts' relationship with other religious communities, particularly with Catholics. Coptic Christianity in Ottoman Egypt highlights how Copts, as a minority living in a dominant Islamic culture, identified and distinguished themselves from other groups by turning to an impressive array of religious traditions, such as the visitation of saints' shrines, the relocation of major festivals to remote destinations, the development of new pilgrimage practices, as well as the writing of sermons that articulated a Coptic religious ethos in reaction to Catholic missionary discourses. Within this discussion of religious life, the Copts' relationship to local political rulers, military elites, the Muslim religious establishment, and to other non-Muslim communities are also elucidated. In all, the book aims to document the Coptic experience within the Ottoman Egyptian context while focusing on new documentary sources and on an historical era that has been long neglected.