Neotropical Diversification Patterns And Processes

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Neotropical Diversification: Patterns and Processes

Neotropical Diversification: Patterns and Processes [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
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Publisher: Springer Nature
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Neotropical Diversification: Patterns and Processes by Book Resume:

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the patterns of biodiversity in various neotropical ecosystems, as well as a discussion on their historical biogeographies and underlying diversification processes. All chapters were written by prominent researchers in the fields of tropical biology, molecular ecology, climatology, paleoecology, and geography, producing an outstanding collection of essays, synthetic analyses, and novel investigations that describe and improve our understanding of the biodiversity of this unique region. With chapters on the Amazon and Caribbean forests, the Atlantic rainforests, the Andes, the Cerrado savannahs, the Caatinga drylands, the Chaco, and Mesoamerica – along with broad taxonomic coverage – this book summarizes a wide range of hypotheses, views, and methods concerning the processes and mechanisms of neotropical diversification. The range of perspectives presented makes the book a truly comprehensive, state-of-the-art publication on the topic, which will fascinate both scientists and general readers alike.

The Andean Cloud Forest

The Andean Cloud Forest [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Randall Walton Myster
Publisher: Springer Nature
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The Andean Cloud Forest by Randall Walton Myster Book Resume:

A book focused solely on Andean Cloud Forests (ACF) has never been published. ACF are high biodiversity ecosystems in the Neotropics with a large proportion of endemic species, and are important for the hydrology of entire regions. They provide water for large parts of the Amazon basin, for example. Here I take advantage of my many years working in ACF in Ecuador, to edit this book that contains the following sections: (1) ACF over space and time, (2) Hydrology, (3) Light and the Carbon cycle, (4) Soil, litter, fungi and nutrient cycling, (5) Plants, (6) Animals, and (7) Human impacts and management. Under this premise, international experts contributed chapters that consist of reviews of what is known about their topic, of what research they have done, and of what needs to be done in the future. This work is suitable for graduate students, professors, scientists, and researcher-oriented managers.

Molecular Ecology and Conservation Genetics of Neotropical Mammals

Molecular Ecology and Conservation Genetics of Neotropical Mammals [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Maximiliano Nardelli,Juan Ignacio Túnez
Publisher: Springer Nature
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Molecular Ecology and Conservation Genetics of Neotropical Mammals by Maximiliano Nardelli,Juan Ignacio Túnez Book Resume:

Although all living beings modify their environment, human beings have acquired the ability to do so on a superlative space-time scale. As a result of industrialization and the use of new technologies, the anthropogenic impact has been increasing in the last centuries, causing reductions in the sizes or the extinction of numerous wild populations. In this sense, from the field of conservation genetics, various efforts have been made in recent decades to provide new knowledge that contributes to the conservation of populations, species, and habitats. In this book, we summarize the concrete contributions of researchers to the conservation of the Neotropical mammals using Molecular Ecology techniques. The book is divided into three major sections. The first section provides an up-to-date review of the conservation status of Neotropical mammals, the applications of the molecular markers in its conservation, and the use of non-invasive and forensic genetic techniques. The second and third sections present, respectively, a series of case studies in various species or taxonomic groups of Neotropical mammals.

Biodiversity of Pantepui

Biodiversity of Pantepui [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Valentí Rull,Teresa Vegas-Vilarrúbia,Otto Huber,Celsa Señaris
Publisher: Academic Press
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Biodiversity of Pantepui by Valentí Rull,Teresa Vegas-Vilarrúbia,Otto Huber,Celsa Señaris Book Resume:

Biodiversity of Pantepui: The Pristine "Lost World" of the Neotropical Guiana Highlands provides the most updated and comprehensive knowledge on the biota, origin, and evolution of the Pantepui biogeographical province. It synthesizes historical information and recent discoveries, covering the main biogeographic patterns, evolutionary trends, and conservational efforts. Written by international experts on the biodiversity of this pristine land, this book explores what makes Pantepui a unique natural laboratory to study the origin and evolution of Neotropical biodiversity under the influence of only natural drivers. It discusses the organisms living in Pentepui, including algae, plants, several groups of invertebrates, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. The latter portion of the book delves into the effects of human activity and global warming on Pantepui, and current conservational efforts to combat these threats. Biodiversity of Pantepui is an important resource for researchers in ecology, biogeography, evolution, and conservation, who want to understand the biodiversity and natural history of this region, and how to help conserve and protect the Guiana Highlands from environmental and human damages. Offers a climactic and ecological history of the region since the Late Glacial epoch Discusses the evolutionary origin of the Pantepui biota and its biogeographical patterns Led by a team of editors whose expertise includes Pantepui, the Guiana Shield, and the Neotropics in general

The Atlantic Forest

The Atlantic Forest [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Marcia C. M. Marques,Carlos E. V. Grelle
Publisher: Springer Nature
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The Atlantic Forest by Marcia C. M. Marques,Carlos E. V. Grelle Book Resume:

The Atlantic Forest is one of the 36 hotspots for biodiversity conservation worldwide. It is a unique, large biome (more than 3000 km in latitude; 2500 in longitude), marked by high biodiversity, high degree of endemic species and, at the same time, extremely threatened. Approximately 70% of the Brazilian population lives in the area of this biome, which makes the conflict between biodiversity conservation and the sustainability of the human population a relevant issue. This book aims to cover: 1) the historical characterization and geographic variation of the biome; 2) the distribution of the diversity of some relevant taxa; 3) the main threats to biodiversity, and 4) possible opportunities to ensure the biodiversity conservation, and the economic and social sustainability. Also, it is hoped that this book can be useful for those involved in the development of public policies aimed at the conservation of this important global biome.

Lizards of Patagonia

Lizards of Patagonia [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Mariana Morando,Luciano J. Avila
Publisher: Springer Nature
File Size: 424 KB
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Lizards of Patagonia by Mariana Morando,Luciano J. Avila Book Resume:

This book presents a critical and integrated review of lizards from Patagonia. It summarizes the region’s geomorphological history and climatic aspects, which makes it possible to interpret, from an evolutionary perspective, the latest findings on the various natural history aspects of its lizard fauna. As such, the book will appeal to all researchers and professionals specialized in lizard ecology and evolution.

The Major Metaphors of Evolution

The Major Metaphors of Evolution [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Salvatore J. Agosta,Daniel R. Brooks
Publisher: Springer Nature
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The Major Metaphors of Evolution by Salvatore J. Agosta,Daniel R. Brooks Book Resume:

This book presents a unified evolutionary framework based on three sets of metaphors that will help to consolidate discussions on evolutionary transitions. Evolution is the unifying principle of life, making identifying ways to apply evolutionary principles to tackle existence-threatening crises such as climate change crucial. A more cohesive evolutionary framework will further the discussions in this regard and also accelerate the process itself. This book lays out a framework based on three dualistic classes of metaphors – time, space, and conflict resolution. Evolutionary transitions theory shows how metaphors can help us understand selective diversification, as Darwin described with his “tree of life”. Moreover, the recently proposed Stockholm paradigm demonstrates how metaphors can help shed light on the emergence of complex ecosystems that Darwin highlighted with his “tangled bank” metaphor. Taken together, these ideas offer proactive measures for coping with existential crises for humanity, such as climate change. The book will appeal to biologists, philosophers and historians alike.

Patterns and Processes of Speciation in Ancient Lakes

Patterns and Processes of Speciation in Ancient Lakes [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Thomas Wilke,Risto Väinolä,Frank Riedel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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Patterns and Processes of Speciation in Ancient Lakes by Thomas Wilke,Risto Väinolä,Frank Riedel Book Resume:

Ancient lakes are exceptional freshwater environments that have continued to exist for hundreds of thousands of years. They have long been recognized as centres of biodiversity and hotspots of evolution. During recent decades, speciation in ancient lakes has emerged as an important and exciting topic in evolutionary biology. The contributions in this volume deal with patterns and processes of biological diversification in three prominent ancient lake systems. Of these, the famous East African Great Lakes already have a strong tradition of evolutionary studies, but the two other systems have so far received much less attention. The exceptional biodiversity of the European sister lakes Ohrid and Prespa of the Balkans has long been known, but has largely been neglected in the international literature until recently. The rich biota and problems of its evolution in the two central lake systems on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, in turn, have only lately started to draw scientific attention. This volume aims at deepening the awareness of the unusual biological diversity in ancient lakes in general, and of the role of these lakes as natural laboratories for the study of speciation and diversification in particular. It should stimulate further research that will lead to a better understanding of key evolutionary processes in these lakes, and to knowledge that might help in mitigating the deterioration of their diversity in the future.

Molecular Genetic Approaches in Conservation

Molecular Genetic Approaches in Conservation [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Thomas B. Smith,Robert K. Wayne
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Molecular Genetic Approaches in Conservation by Thomas B. Smith,Robert K. Wayne Book Resume:

Molecular techniques are proving invaluable in determining the phylogenetic status of potentially endangered species, for investigating mechanisms of speciation, and for measuring the genetic structure of populations. It is increasingly important for ecologists and evolutionary and conservation biologists to understand and use such molecular techniques, but most workers in these areas have not been trained in molecular biology. This book lays out the principles and basic techniques for the molecular tools appropriate for addressing issues in conservation, and it presents case studies showing how these tools have been used successfully in conservation biology. Examples include the genetic analysis of population structure, various uses of DNA in conservation genetics, and estimation of migration parameters from genetic data. Wildlife managers, as well as researchers in these areas, will find this a valuable book.

The Physical Geography of South America

The Physical Geography of South America [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Thomas T. Veblen,Kenneth R. Young,Antony R. Orme
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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The Physical Geography of South America by Thomas T. Veblen,Kenneth R. Young,Antony R. Orme Book Resume:

The Physical Geography of South America, the eighth volume in the Oxford Regional Environments series, presents an enduring statement on the physical and biogeographic conditions of this remarkable continent and their relationships to human activity. It fills a void in recent environmental literature by assembling a team of specialists from within and beyond South America in order to provide an integrated, cross-disciplinary body of knowledge about this mostly tropical continent, together with its high mountains and temperate southern cone. The authors systematically cover the main components of the South American environment - tectonism, climate, glaciation, natural landscape changes, rivers, vegetation, animals, and soils. The book then presents more specific treatments of regions with special attributes from the tropical forests of the Amazon basin to the Atacama Desert and Patagonian steppe, and from the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Pacific coasts to the high Andes. Additionally, the continents environments are given a human face by evaluating the roles played by people over time, from pre-European and European colonial impacts to the effects of modern agriculture and urbanization, and from interactions with El Niño events to prognoses for the future environments of the continent.

Neotropical Biogeography

Neotropical Biogeography [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Juan J. Morrone
Publisher: CRC Press
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Neotropical Biogeography by Juan J. Morrone Book Resume:

Neotropical Biogeography: Regionalization and Evolution presents the most comprehensive single-source treatment of the Neotropical region derived from evolutionary biogeographic studies. The book provides a biogeographic regionalization based on distributional patterns of plant and animal taxa, discusses biotic relationships drawn from track and cladistic biogeographic analyses, and identifies cenocrons (subsets of taxa within biotas identified by their common origin and evolutionary history). It includes maps, area cladograms and vegetation profiles. The aim of this reference is to provide a biogeographic regionalization that can be used by graduate students, researchers and other professionals concerned with understanding and describing distributional patterns of plants and animals in the Neotropical region. It covers the 53 biogeographic provinces of the Neotropical region that are classified into the Antillean, Brazilian and Chacoan subregions, and the Mexican and South American transition zones.

Tropical Forests

Tropical Forests [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Gerard Meurant
Publisher: Academic Press
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Tropical Forests by Gerard Meurant Book Resume:

Proceedings of a conference on Tropical Forests: Botanical Dynamics, Speciation and Diversity held at the University of Aarhus, Denmark, August 8*ba10, 1988. The increasing rate of destruction of the world's tropical forests gives grave cause for concern on several counts. In conservative terms, species are being lost at an incredible rate, many before they have even been described. In scientific terms, habitats, communities, and unique systems are lost before they can be studied and used to broaden our understanding of ecological processes in general. The meeting on which this book is based aimed to address two basic needs: to describe some of the marvellous biological treasures of tropical forests and to learn what they can tellus about processes in ecology, and to alert us all once again to the disaster which is overtaking this rich and varied environment.

Memória, cultura material e sensibilidade

Memória, cultura material e sensibilidade [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Alexandre Guida Navarro,Raquel dos Santos Funari
Publisher: Paco e Littera
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Memória, cultura material e sensibilidade by Alexandre Guida Navarro,Raquel dos Santos Funari Book Resume:

Cultura material e sensibilidade estudos em homenagem a Pedro Paulo Funari, é uma obra organizada que tem como objetivo celebrar a vida de um dos principais arqueólogos brasileiros e professor titular da Unicamp Pedro Paulo Funari, considerando seus importantes estudos sobre a cultura material e sua vasta produção acadêmica com caráter interdisciplinar. Ao longo dos capítulos os autores, que foram/são seus alunos e colegas de trabalho do professor Funari e apresentaram narrativas diversas produzidas a partir da cultura material.

Paleoecological Research on Easter Island

Paleoecological Research on Easter Island [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Valenti Rull
Publisher: Elsevier
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Paleoecological Research on Easter Island by Valenti Rull Book Resume:

Paleocological Research on Easter Island: Insights on Settlement, Climate Changes, Deforestation and Cultural Shifts examines the area’s climatic and ecological history, a topic not usually addressed in other literature. The book provides a thorough and synthetic account of all paleoecological works developed to date, including the latest discoveries. Finally, it attempts to match paleoecological evidence with the results of other disciplines creating a multidisciplinary framework. This approach to the field is ideal for researchers, university professors and graduate students in a varied range of disciplines and subdisciplines, including ecology, paleoecology, paleoclimatology, biogeography, sedimentology, and paleontology. Users will find synthesized information on Easter Island from the last millennia that will help pave the way towards an integrated interdisciplinary vision of the island’s environmental-ecological-cultural system as a complex functional unit. Human and environmental deterministic views are avoided and the Easter Island enigmas are analyzed under a holistic perspective of continuous feedbacks and synergies among the different components of the system. Provides the first synthesis of the available paleoecological knowledge on Easter Island Furnishes clues on how to integrate paleoecological information with evidence from other disciplines Addresses the complexity of the environmental-ecological-cultural system by analyzing the interactions (feedbacks and synergies) among its components

The Biology of Rarity

The Biology of Rarity [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: W.E. Kunin,K.J. Gaston
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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The Biology of Rarity by W.E. Kunin,K.J. Gaston Book Resume:

This book began life as a review article. That article spawned a symposium which was, in turn, greatly expanded to form the present volume. As the project moved through these developmental stages (hopefully, towards attainment of its full maturity), a number of people have provided invaluable assistance to us, and we would like to take this opportunity to thank them. Gordon Orians must certainly take a high place in that list. He has been both a friend and mentor to W.E.K., and many of the topics explored in this book have emerged from the resultant dialogue. His thought processes, ideas and perhaps even some of his turns of phrase emerge throughout much ofthe book. Gordon also played a pivotal role in inviting in motion, and so he has served as a catalyst the article that set this project to the book as well as one of its reagents. While he has not served as an editor of this book, he is one of its authors in more than just the literal sense.

Neotropical Savannas and Seasonally Dry Forests

Neotropical Savannas and Seasonally Dry Forests [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: R. Toby Pennington,James A. Ratter
Publisher: CRC Press
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Neotropical Savannas and Seasonally Dry Forests by R. Toby Pennington,James A. Ratter Book Resume:

More often than not, when people think of a neotropical forest, what comes to mind is a rain forest, rather than a dry forest. Just as typically, when they imagine a savanna, they visualize the African plains, rather than those dry woodlands and grasslands found in the Neotropics. These same preconceptions can be found among scientists, as these ne

Sexual Selection

Sexual Selection [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Regina H. Macedo,Glauco Machado
Publisher: Academic Press
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Sexual Selection by Regina H. Macedo,Glauco Machado Book Resume:

Sexual Selection: Perspectives and Models from the Neotropics presents new sexual selection research based upon neotropical species. As neotropical regions are destroyed at an alarming rate, with an estimated 140 species of rainforest plants and animals going extinct every day, it is important to bring neotropical research to the fore now. Sexual selection occurs when the male or female of a species is attracted by certain characteristics such as form, color or behavior. When those features lead to a greater probability of successful mating, they become more prominent in the species. Although most theoretical concepts concerning sexual selection and reproductive strategies are based upon North American and European fauna, the Neotropical region encompasses much more biodiversity, with as many as 15,000 plant and animal species in a single acre of rain forest. This book illustrates concepts in sexual selection through themes ranging from female cryptic choice in insects, sexual conflict in fish, interaction between sexual selection and the immune system, nuptial gifts, visual and acoustic sexual signaling, parental investment, to alternative mating strategies, among others. These approaches distinguish Sexual Selection from current publications in sexual selection, mainly because of the latitudinal and taxonomic focus, so that readers will be introduced to systems mostly unknown outside the tropics, several of which bring into question some well-established patterns for temperate regions. Synthesizes sexual selection research on species from the Neotropics Combines different perspectives and levels of analysis using a broad taxonomic basis, introducing readers to systems mostly unknown outside the tropics and bringing into question well-established patterns for temperate regions Includes contributions exploring concepts and theory as well as discussions on a variety of Neotropical vertebrates and invertebrates, such as insects, fish, arthropods and birds

Phyllostomid Bats

Phyllostomid Bats [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Theodore H Fleming,Liliana M. Dávalos,Marco A. R. Mello
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
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Phyllostomid Bats by Theodore H Fleming,Liliana M. Dávalos,Marco A. R. Mello Book Resume:

With more than two hundred species distributed from California through Texas and across most of mainland Mexico, Central and South America, and islands in the Caribbean Sea, the Phyllostomidae bat family (American leaf-nosed bats) is one of the world’s most diverse mammalian families. From an insectivorous ancestor, species living today, over about 30 million years, have evolved a hyper-diverse range of diets, from blood or small vertebrates, to consuming nectar, pollen, and fruit. Phyllostomid plant-visiting species are responsible for pollinating more than five hundred species of neotropical shrubs, trees, vines, and epiphytes—many of which are economically and ecologically important—and they also disperse the seeds of at least another five hundred plant species. Fruit-eating and seed-dispersing members of this family thus play a crucial role in the regeneration of neotropical forests, and the fruit eaters are among the most abundant mammals in these habitats. Coauthored by leading experts in the field and synthesizing the latest advances in molecular biology and ecological methods, Phyllostomid Bats is the first overview in more than forty years of the evolution of the many morphological, behavioral, physiological, and ecological adaptations in this family. Featuring abundant illustrations as well as details on the current conservation status of phyllostomid species, it is both a comprehensive reference for these ecologically vital creatures and a fascinating exploration of the evolutionary process of adaptive radiation.

Bones, Clones, and Biomes

Bones, Clones, and Biomes [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Bruce D. Patterson,Leonora P. Costa
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
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Bones, Clones, and Biomes by Bruce D. Patterson,Leonora P. Costa Book Resume:

As explorers and scientists have known for decades, the Neotropics harbor a fantastic array of our planet’s mammalian diversity, from capybaras and capuchins to maned wolves and mouse opossums to sloths and sakis. This biological bounty can be attributed partly to the striking diversity of Neotropical landscapes and climates and partly to a series of continental connections that permitted intermittent faunal exchanges with Africa, Antarctica, Australia, and North America. Thus, to comprehend the development of modern Neotropical mammal faunas requires not only mastery of the Neotropics’ substantial diversity, but also knowledge of mammalian lineages and landscapes dating back to the Mesozoic. Bones, Clones, and Biomes offers just that—an exploration of the development and relationships of the modern mammal fauna through a series of studies that encompass the last 100 million years and both Central and South America. This work serves as a complement to more taxonomically driven works, providing for readers the long geologic and biogeographic contexts that undergird the abundance and diversity of Neotropical mammals. Rather than documenting diversity or distribution, this collection traverses the patterns that the distributions and relationships across mammal species convey, bringing together for the first time geology, paleobiology, systematics, mammalogy, and biogeography. Of critical importance is the book’s utility for current conservation and management programs, part of a rapidly rising conservation paleobiology initiative.

Biodiversity Conservation and Phylogenetic Systematics

Biodiversity Conservation and Phylogenetic Systematics [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Roseli Pellens,Philippe Grandcolas
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 1890 KB
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Read Count: 854056

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Biodiversity Conservation and Phylogenetic Systematics by Roseli Pellens,Philippe Grandcolas Book Resume:

This book is about phylogenetic diversity as an approach to reduce biodiversity losses in this period of mass extinction. Chapters in the first section deal with questions such as the way we value phylogenetic diversity among other criteria for biodiversity conservation; the choice of measures; the loss of phylogenetic diversity with extinction; the importance of organisms that are deeply branched in the tree of life, and the role of relict species. The second section is composed by contributions exploring methodological aspects, such as how to deal with abundance, sampling effort, or conflicting trees in analysis of phylogenetic diversity. The last section is devoted to applications, showing how phylogenetic diversity can be integrated in systematic conservation planning, in EDGE and HEDGE evaluations. This wide coverage makes the book a reference for academics, policy makers and stakeholders dealing with biodiversity conservation.

Predators with Pouches

Predators with Pouches [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Menna Jones,Mike Archer,Chris Dickman
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
File Size: 606 KB
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Predators with Pouches by Menna Jones,Mike Archer,Chris Dickman Book Resume:

Predators with Pouches provides a unique synthesis of current knowledge of the world’s carnivorous marsupials—from Patagonia to New Guinea and North America to Tasmania. Written by 63 experts in each field, the book covers a comprehensive range of disciplines including evolution and systematics, reproductive biology, physiology, ecology, behaviour and conservation. Predators with Pouches reveals the relationships between the American didelphids and the Australian dasyurids, and explores the role of the marsupial fauna in the mammal community. It introduces the geologically oldest marsupials, from the Americas, and examines the fall from former diversity of the larger marsupial carnivores and their convergent evolution with placental forms. The book covers all aspects of carnivorous marsupials, including interesting features of life history, their unique reproduction, the physiological basis for early senescence in semelparous dasyurids, sex ratio variation and juvenile dispersal. It looks at gradients in nutrition—from omnivory to insectivory to carnivory—as well as distributional ecology, social structure and conservation dilemmas.

Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 51

Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 51 [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Praveen Guleria,Vineet Kumar,Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher: Springer Nature
File Size: 795 KB
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Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 51 by Praveen Guleria,Vineet Kumar,Eric Lichtfouse Book Resume:

In the context of climate change, pollution and food safety, the current challenge is to enhance legumes production to sustain the growing population needs by 2050. This is a daunting task because abiotic and biotic stresses are threatening the growth, survival and productivity of legumes. For instance, the productivity of legumes is documented to be reduced by 14-88% by abiotic stresses. The co-occurrence of abiotic and biotic stresses under field conditions leads to interactive stress types, thus yielding positive or negative outcomes. Legumes react using antioxidant defense, osmoregulatory adjustments, hormonal regulations and molecular mechanisms to tolerate stress. Hence, improving legume productivity requires knowledge on the sensitivity, mechanisms and approaches of stress tolerance in legumes, in order to design new crops and alternative management systems. This book presents advances on bioactive compounds, applications, effect of various stresses and biotechnology-based stress tolerance mechanisms of legumes. This is our second volume on Legume Agriculture and Biotechnology, published in the series Sustainable Agriculture Reviews.

The Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of Cichlid Fishes

The Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of Cichlid Fishes [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Maria E. Abate,David L.G. Noakes
Publisher: Springer Nature
File Size: 1061 KB
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The Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of Cichlid Fishes by Maria E. Abate,David L.G. Noakes Book Resume:

This volume constitutes the most recent and most comprehensive consideration of the largest family of bony fishes, the Cichlidae. This book offers an integrated perspective of cichlid fishes ranging from conservation of threatened species to management of cichlids as invasive species themselves. Long-standing models of taxonomy and systematics are subjected to the most recent applications and interpretations of molecular evidence and multivariate analyses; and cichlid adaptive radiations at different scales are elucidated. The incredible diversity of endemic cichlid species in African lakes is revisited as possible examples of sympatric speciation and as serious cases for management in complex anthropogenic environments. Extreme hydrology and bathymetry as driver of micro-allopatric speciation is explored in the African riverine hotspot of diversity of the lower Congo River. Dramatic new molecular evidence draws attention to the complex taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical cichlids including the crater lakes of Central America. Molecular genetics, genomics, imaging tools and field study techniques assess the roles of natural, sexual and kin selection in shaping cichlid traits and beyond. The complex behavioral adaptations of cichlids are considered from a number of sub-disciplines including sensory biology, neurobiology, development, and evolutionary ecology. Most importantly, this volume puts forth a wealth of new interpretations, explanatory hypotheses and proposals for practical management and applications that will shape the future for these remarkable fishes in nature as well as their use as models for the study of biology.

Tropical Biology and Conservation Management - Volume V

Tropical Biology and Conservation Management - Volume V [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Kleber Del Claro,Paulo S. Oliveira,Victor Rico-Gray
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
File Size: 643 KB
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Read Count: 8056503

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Tropical Biology and Conservation Management - Volume V by Kleber Del Claro,Paulo S. Oliveira,Victor Rico-Gray Book Resume:

This Encyclopedia of Tropical Biology and Conservation Management is a component of the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Tropical environments cover the most part of still preserved natural areas of the Earth. The greatest biodiversity, as in terms of animals and plants, as microorganisms, is placed in these hot and rainy ecosystems spread up and below the Equator line. Additionally, the most part of food products, with vegetal or animal origin, that sustain nowadays human beings is direct or undirected dependent of tropical productivity. Biodiversity should be looked at and evaluated not only in terms of numbers of species, but also in terms of the diversity of interactions among distinct organisms that it maintains. In this sense, the complexity of web structure in tropical systems is a promise of future to nature preservation on Earth. In the chemicals of tropical plant and animals, could be the cure to infinite number of diseases, new food sources, and who knows what more. Despite these facts tropical areas have been exploited in an irresponsible way for more than 500 years due the lack of an ecological conscience of men. Exactly in the same way we did with temperate areas and also tropical areas in the north of Equator line. Nowadays, is estimated that due human exploitation, nation conflicts and social problems, less than 8% of tropical nature inside continental areas is still now untouchable. The extension of damage in the tropical areas of oceans is unknown. Thus so, all knowledge we could accumulate about tropical systems will help us, as in the preservations of these important and threatened ecosystems as in a future recuperation, when it was possible. Only knowing the past and developing culture, mainly that directed to peace, to a better relationship among nations and responsible use and preservation of natural resources, human beings will have a long future on Earth. These volumes, Tropical Biology and Natural Resources was divided in sessions to provide the reader the better comprehension possible of issue and also to enable future complementation and improvements in the encyclopedia. Like we work with life, we intended to transform this encyclopedia also in a “life” volume, in what new information could be added in any time. As president of the encyclopedia and main editor I opened the theme with an article titled: “Tropical Biology and Natural resources: Historical Pathways and Perspectives”, providing the reader an initial view of the origins of human knowledge about the tropical life, and what we hope to the future. In the sequence we have more than 100 chapters distributed in tem sessions: Tropical Ecology (TE); Tropical Botany (TB); Tropical Zoology (TZ); Savannah Ecosystems (SE); Desert Ecosystems (DE); Tropical Agriculture (TA); Natural History of Tropical Plants (NH); Human Impact on Tropical Ecosystems (HI); Tropical Phytopathology and Entomology (TPE); Case Studies (CS). This 11-volume set contains several chapters, each of size 5000-30000 words, with perspectives, applications and extensive illustrations. It is the only publication of its kind carrying state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of Tropical Biology and Conservation Management and is aimed, by virtue of the several applications, at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students, Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers and NGOs.

Piper: A Model Genus for Studies of Phytochemistry, Ecology, and Evolution

Piper: A Model Genus for Studies of Phytochemistry, Ecology, and Evolution [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Lee A. Dyer,Aparna Palmer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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Piper: A Model Genus for Studies of Phytochemistry, Ecology, and Evolution by Lee A. Dyer,Aparna Palmer Book Resume:

Piper is an economically and ecologically important genus of plant that includes a fascinating array of species for studying natural history, natural products chemistry, community ecology, and evolutionary biology. The diversification of this taxon is unique and of great importance in understanding the evolution of plants. The diversity and ecological relevance of this genus makes it an obvious candidate for ecological and evolutionary studies, but surprisingly, most research on Piper spp. to-date has focused on the more economically important plants P. nigrum (black pepper), P. methysticum (kava), and P. betle (betel leaf). While this book does address the applied techniques of studying Piper, its focus is more on Piper in its natural setting. Piper: A Model Genus for Studies of Phytochemistry, Ecology, and Evolution synthesizes existing data and provides an outline for future investigations of the chemistry, ecology, and evolution of this taxon, while examining its key themes of Piper as a model genus for ecological and evolutionary studies, the important ecological roles of Piper species in lowland wet forests, and the evolution of distinctive Piper attributes. This volume has a place in the libraries of those studying or working in the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology, natural products chemistry, invasive species biology, pharmaceutics, and ethnobotany.

Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes

Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: James S. Albert,Roberto Reis
Publisher: Univ of California Press
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Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes by James S. Albert,Roberto Reis Book Resume:

The fish faunas of continental South and Central America constitute one of the greatest concentrations of aquatic diversity on Earth, consisting of about 10 percent of all living vertebrate species. Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes explores the evolutionary origins of this unique ecosystem. The chapters address central themes in the study of tropical biodiversity: why is the Amazon basin home to so many distinct evolutionary lineages? What roles do ecological specialization, speciation, and extinction play in the formation of regional assemblages? How do dispersal barriers contribute to isolation and diversification? Focusing on whole faunas rather than individual taxonomic groups, this volume shows that the area’s high regional diversity is not the result of recent diversification in lowland tropical rainforests. Rather, it is the product of species accumulating over tens of millions of years and across a continental arena.

Evolutionary Theory and Processes: Modern Perspectives

Evolutionary Theory and Processes: Modern Perspectives [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Solomon P. Wasser
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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Evolutionary Theory and Processes: Modern Perspectives by Solomon P. Wasser Book Resume:

This volume consists of papers written by evolutionary, molecular and organismal biologists, geneticists, ecologists, behavioural ecologists, morphologists, mathematicians, theoreticians and experimentalists, in honour of Professor Eviatar (Eibi) Nevo on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. The contributors are only a small subset of Eibi's many friends, collaborators and students (not that one can distinguish these categories among Eibi's colleagues). His widespread influence and activity, both in Israel and more generally, as a leading evolutionary biologist is indicated by his many co-authors on books and papers, and by his many students integrated in teaching and research. This volume presents some of the most recent dramatic results of molecular, genomic, and organismal evolutionary processes. It represents analyses, experiments, observations, reviews, discussions and forecasts of evolutionary theory comprising both novel methods and results, reanalyzed and reviewed data sets based on comparative, experimental, and theoretical studies utilizing model organisms across phylogeny, including bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and humans. It elucidates the revolution in molecular biology that ushered in our understanding of the evolutionary process over time and space. The topics discussed include major problems of evolutionary theory concerning origins, phylogeny, relative importance of evolutionary forces, structure and function, adaptation and speciation in space and time in changing and stressful environments. A major emerging generalization is the nonrandomness of genome structure highlighting the importance of natural selection as a major organizing evolutionary force not only at the phenotypic level, but most importantly at the interlinked genotypic molecular level. The integration between the molecular and organismal levels unifies life which is subjected to the mechanism of natural selection as a major orienting evolutionary force.

Biogeographic Patterns of South American Anurans

Biogeographic Patterns of South American Anurans [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Tiago S. Vasconcelos,Fernando R. da Silva,Tiago G. dos Santos,Vitor H. M. Prado,Diogo B. Provete
Publisher: Springer Nature
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Biogeographic Patterns of South American Anurans by Tiago S. Vasconcelos,Fernando R. da Silva,Tiago G. dos Santos,Vitor H. M. Prado,Diogo B. Provete Book Resume:

This book analyzes different facets of anuran amphibian distribution in South America. We integrate alternative biological metrics employing cutting-edge methods to understand the dynamic processes underlying species distribution patterns. By using the modern biogeographic toolbox, we explore how richness gradients, phylogenetic diversity, functional diversity, and range size/endemism distribution of amphibians vary along the continent. Moreover, we present a robust proposal for priority areas for conservation of anurans in South America that maximizes representativeness of distinct biodiversity facets.

The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians

The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Kentwood D. Wells
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
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The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians by Kentwood D. Wells Book Resume:

Consisting of more than six thousand species, amphibians are more diverse than mammals and are found on every continent save Antarctica. Despite the abundance and diversity of these animals, many aspects of the biology of amphibians remain unstudied or misunderstood. The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians aims to fill this gap in the literature on this remarkable taxon. It is a celebration of the diversity of amphibian life and the ecological and behavioral adaptations that have made it a successful component of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Synthesizing seventy years of research on amphibian biology, Kentwood D. Wells addresses all major areas of inquiry, including phylogeny, classification, and morphology; aspects of physiological ecology such as water and temperature relations, respiration, metabolism, and energetics; movements and orientation; communication and social behavior; reproduction and parental care; ecology and behavior of amphibian larvae and ecological aspects of metamorphosis; ecological impact of predation on amphibian populations and antipredator defenses; and aspects of amphibian community ecology. With an eye towards modern concerns, The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians concludes with a chapter devoted to amphibian conservation. An unprecedented scholarly contribution to amphibian biology, this book is eagerly anticipated among specialists.

Caatinga

Caatinga [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: José Maria Cardoso da Silva,Inara R. Leal,Marcelo Tabarelli
Publisher: Springer
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Caatinga by José Maria Cardoso da Silva,Inara R. Leal,Marcelo Tabarelli Book Resume:

This book provides in-depth information on Caatinga’s geographical boundaries and ecological systems, including plants, insects, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. It also discusses the major threats to the region’s socio-ecological systems and includes chapters on climate change and fast and large-scale land-use changes, as well as slow and small-scale changes, also known as chronic human disturbances. Subsequent chapters address sustainable agriculture, conservation systems, and sustainable development. Lastly, the book proposes 10 major actions that could enable the transformation of Caatinga into a place where people and nature can thrive together. “I consider this book an excellent example of how scientists worldwide can mobilize their efforts to propose sound solutions for one of the biggest challenges of modern times, i.e., how to protect the world’s natural ecosystems while improving human well-being. I am sure this book will inspire more research and conservation action in the region and perhaps encourage other groups of scientists to produce similar syntheses about their regions.” Russell Mittermeier, Ph.D. Executive Vice-Chair, Conservation International

Thinking like a Parrot

Thinking like a Parrot [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Alan B. Bond,Judy Diamond
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
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Thinking like a Parrot by Alan B. Bond,Judy Diamond Book Resume:

From two experts on wild parrot cognition, a close look at the intelligence, social behavior, and conservation of these widely threatened birds. People form enduring emotional bonds with other animal species, such as dogs, cats, and horses. For the most part, these are domesticated animals, with one notable exception: many people form close and supportive relationships with parrots, even though these amusing and curious birds remain thoroughly wild creatures. What enables this unique group of animals to form social bonds with people, and what does this mean for their survival? In Thinking like a Parrot, Alan B. Bond and Judy Diamond look beyond much of the standard work on captive parrots to the mischievous, inquisitive, and astonishingly vocal parrots of the wild. Focusing on the psychology and ecology of wild parrots, Bond and Diamond document their distinctive social behavior, sophisticated cognition, and extraordinary vocal abilities. Also included are short vignettes—field notes on the natural history and behavior of both rare and widely distributed species, from the neotropical crimson-fronted parakeet to New Zealand’s flightless, ground-dwelling kākāpō. This composite approach makes clear that the behavior of captive parrots is grounded in the birds’ wild ecology and evolution, revealing that parrots’ ability to bond with people is an evolutionary accident, a by-product of the intense sociality and flexible behavior that characterize their lives. Despite their adaptability and intelligence, however, nearly all large parrot species are rare, threatened, or endangered. To successfully manage and restore these wild populations, Bond and Diamond argue, we must develop a fuller understanding of their biology and the complex set of ecological and behavioral traits that has led to their vulnerability. Spanning the global distribution of parrot species, Thinking like a Parrot is rich with surprising insights into parrot intelligence, flexibility, and—even in the face of threats—resilience.

Birds of Prey

Birds of Prey [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: José Hernán Sarasola,Juan Manuel Grande,Juan José Negro
Publisher: Springer
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Birds of Prey by José Hernán Sarasola,Juan Manuel Grande,Juan José Negro Book Resume:

This book will provide the state-of-the-art on most of the topics involved in the ecology and conservation of birds of prey. With chapters authored by the most recognized and prestigious researchers on each of the fields, this book will become an authorized reference volume for raptor biologists and researchers around the world.

Evaluating the Taxonomic Status of the Mexican Gray Wolf and the Red Wolf

Evaluating the Taxonomic Status of the Mexican Gray Wolf and the Red Wolf [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Assessing the Taxonomic Status of the Red Wolf and the Mexican Gray Wolf
Publisher: National Academies Press
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Evaluating the Taxonomic Status of the Mexican Gray Wolf and the Red Wolf by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Assessing the Taxonomic Status of the Red Wolf and the Mexican Gray Wolf Book Resume:

Scientists strive to develop clear rules for naming and grouping living organisms. But taxonomy, the scientific study of biological classification and evolution, is often highly debated. Members of a species, the fundamental unit of taxonomy and evolution, share a common evolutionary history and a common evolutionary path to the future. Yet, it can be difficult to determine whether the evolutionary history or future of a population is sufficiently distinct to designate it as a unique species. A species is not a fixed entity â€" the relationship among the members of the same species is only a snapshot of a moment in time. Different populations of the same species can be in different stages in the process of species formation or dissolution. In some cases hybridization and introgression can create enormous challenges in interpreting data on genetic distinctions between groups. Hybridization is far more common in the evolutionary history of many species than previously recognized. As a result, the precise taxonomic status of an organism may be highly debated. This is the current case with the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) and the red wolf (Canis rufus), and this report assesses the taxonomic status for each.

Evolutionary Biology

Evolutionary Biology [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Max K. Hecht,Bruce Wallace,Ghillean T. Prance
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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Evolutionary Biology by Max K. Hecht,Bruce Wallace,Ghillean T. Prance Book Resume:

Fifteen volumes and one supplement have now appeared in the series known as Evolutionary Biology. The editors continue to seek critical reviews, original papers, and commentaries on controversial topics. It is our aim to publish papers primarily of greater length and depth than those normally published by society journals and quarterlies. The editors make every attempt to solicit manuscripts on an international scale and to see that no facet of evolutionary biology-classical or modern-is slighted. Manuscripts should be sent to anyone of the following: Max K. Hecht, Department of Biology, Queens College of the City University of New York, Flushing, New York 11367; Bruce Wallace, Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061; Ghillean T. Prance, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458. The Editors vII Contents 1. Patterns of Neotropical Plant Species Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Alwyn H. Gentry Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I Sites and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sample Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Identifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Structural Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Community Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Floristic Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Dispersal Ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Pollination Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Appendix. Sites and Communities Studied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 2. Evolution on a Petri Dish: The Evolved fJ-Galactosidase System as a Model for Studying Acquisitive Evolution in the Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ••. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Barry G. Hall Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Approaches to Molecular Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 The Descriptive Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 The Experimental Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Mechanisms for the Acquisition of New Genetic Material. . . . . 97 The EBG System a s a Model for Acquisitive Evolution . . . . . . . 98 The Unevolved Enzyme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Genetics and Genomics of Cotton

Genetics and Genomics of Cotton [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Andrew H. Paterson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
File Size: 1003 KB
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Genetics and Genomics of Cotton by Andrew H. Paterson Book Resume:

The Gossypium (cotton) genus presents novel opportunities to advance our understanding of the natural world and its organic evolution. In this book, advances of the past decade are summarized and synthesized to elucidate the current state of knowledge of the structure, function, and evolution of the Gossypium genome, and progress in the application of this knowledge to cotton improvement. This book provides the first comprehensive reference on cotton genomics.

Insect-Plant Interactions in a Crop Protection Perspective

Insect-Plant Interactions in a Crop Protection Perspective [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
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Insect-Plant Interactions in a Crop Protection Perspective by Book Resume:

Insect-Plant Interactions, the latest edition in the Advances in Botanical Research series, which publishes in-depth and up-to-date reviews on a wide range of topics in the plant sciences, features several reviews by recognized experts on all aspects of plant genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, physiology, and ecology. Publishes in-depth and up-to-date reviews on a wide range of topics in plant sciences Presents the latest information on artificial photosynthesis Features a wide range of reviews by recognized experts on all aspects of plant genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, physiology, and ecology

Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes

Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: James S. Albert,Roberto Reis
Publisher: Univ of California Press
File Size: 759 KB
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Read Count: 278666

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Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes by James S. Albert,Roberto Reis Book Resume:

The fish faunas of continental South and Central America constitute one of the greatest concentrations of aquatic diversity on Earth, consisting of about 10 percent of all living vertebrate species. Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes explores the evolutionary origins of this unique ecosystem. The chapters address central themes in the study of tropical biodiversity: why is the Amazon basin home to so many distinct evolutionary lineages? What roles do ecological specialization, speciation, and extinction play in the formation of regional assemblages? How do dispersal barriers contribute to isolation and diversification? Focusing on whole faunas rather than individual taxonomic groups, this volume shows that the area’s high regional diversity is not the result of recent diversification in lowland tropical rainforests. Rather, it is the product of species accumulating over tens of millions of years and across a continental arena.

Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity

Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Carina Hoorn,Allison Perrigo,Alexandre Antonelli
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
File Size: 1219 KB
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Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity by Carina Hoorn,Allison Perrigo,Alexandre Antonelli Book Resume:

Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity: A comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis for students and researchers Mountains are topographically complex formations that play a fundamental role in regional and continental-scale climates. They are also cradles to all major river systems and home to unique, and often highly biodiverse and threatened, ecosystems. But how do all these processes tie together to form the patterns of diversity we see today? Written by leading researchers in the fields of geology, biology, climate, and geography, this book explores the relationship between mountain building and climate change, and how these processes shape biodiversity through time and space. In the first two sections, you will learn about the processes, theory, and methods connecting mountain building and biodiversity In the third section, you will read compelling examples from around the world exploring the links between mountains, climate and biodiversity Throughout the 31 peer-reviewed chapters, a non-technical style and synthetic illustrations make this book accessible to a wide audience A comprehensive glossary summarises the main concepts and terminology Readership: Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity is intended for students and researchers in geosciences, biology and geography. It is specifically compiled for those who are interested in historical biogeography, biodiversity and conservation.

The Ornaments of Life

The Ornaments of Life [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Theodore H. Fleming,W. John Kress
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
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The Ornaments of Life by Theodore H. Fleming,W. John Kress Book Resume:

The average kilometer of tropical rainforest is teeming with life; it contains thousands of species of plants and animals. As The Ornaments of Life reveals, many of the most colorful and eye-catching rainforest inhabitants—toucans, monkeys, leaf-nosed bats, and hummingbirds to name a few—are an important component of the infrastructure that supports life in the forest. These fruit-and-nectar eating birds and mammals pollinate the flowers and disperse the seeds of hundreds of tropical plants, and unlike temperate communities, much of this greenery relies exclusively on animals for reproduction. Synthesizing recent research by ecologists and evolutionary biologists, Theodore H. Fleming and W. John Kress demonstrate the tremendous functional and evolutionary importance of these tropical pollinators and frugivores. They shed light on how these mutually symbiotic relationships evolved and lay out the current conservation status of these essential species. In order to illustrate the striking beauty of these “ornaments” of the rainforest, the authors have included a series of breathtaking color plates and full-color graphs and diagrams.

Pattern and Process in Macroecology

Pattern and Process in Macroecology [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Kevin Gaston,Tim Blackburn
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
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Pattern and Process in Macroecology by Kevin Gaston,Tim Blackburn Book Resume:

Issues of scale have become increasingly important to ecologists. This book addresses the structure of regional (large-scale) ecological assemblages or communities, and the influence this has at a local (small-scale) level. This macroecological perspective is essential for the broader study of ecology because the structure and function of local communities cannot be properly understood without reference to the region in which they are situated. The book reviews and synthesizes the issues of current importance in macroecology, providing a balanced summary of the field that will be useful for biologists at advanced undergraduate level and above. These general issues are illustrated by frequent reference to specific well-studied local and regional assemblages -- an approach that serves to relate the macroecological perspective (which is perhaps often difficult to comprehend) to the everyday experience of local sites. Macroecology is an expanding and dynamic discipline. The broad aim of the book is to promote an understanding of why it is such an important part of the wider program of research into ecology. Summarises the current macroecological literature. Provides numerous examples of key patterns. Explicitly links local and regional scale processes. Exploits detailed knowledge of one species assemblage to explore broad issues in the structuring of biodiversity.