Military Justice

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Court-Martial: How Military Justice Has Shaped America from the Revolution to 9/11 and Beyond

Court-Martial: How Military Justice Has Shaped America from the Revolution to 9/11 and Beyond [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0393243419
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Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
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Court-Martial: How Military Justice Has Shaped America from the Revolution to 9/11 and Beyond by Book Resume:

A timely, provocative account of how military justice has shaped American society since the nation’s beginnings. Historian and former soldier Chris Bray tells the sweeping story of military justice from the earliest days of the republic to contemporary arguments over using military courts to try foreign terrorists or soldiers accused of sexual assault. Stretching from the American Revolution to 9/11, Court-Martial recounts the stories of famous American court-martials, including those involving President Andrew Jackson, General William Tecumseh Sherman, Lieutenant Jackie Robinson, and Private Eddie Slovik. Bray explores how encounters of freed slaves with the military justice system during the Civil War anticipated the civil rights movement, and he explains how the Uniform Code of Military Justice came about after World War II. With a great eye for narrative, Bray hones in on the human elements of these stories, from Revolutionary-era militiamen demanding the right to participate in political speech as citizens, to black soldiers risking their lives during the Civil War to demand fair pay, to the struggles over the court-martial of Lieutenant William Calley and the events of My Lai during the Vietnam War. Throughout, Bray presents readers with these unvarnished voices and his own perceptive commentary. Military justice may be separate from civilian justice, but it is thoroughly entwined with American society. As Bray reminds us, the history of American military justice is inextricably the history of America, and Court-Martial powerfully documents the many ways that the separate justice system of the armed forces has served as a proxy for America’s ongoing arguments over equality, privacy, discrimination, security, and liberty.

Military Courts, Civil-Military Relations, and the Legal Battle for Democracy

Military Courts, Civil-Military Relations, and the Legal Battle for Democracy [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 042967094X
Author: Brett J. Kyle,Andrew G. Reiter
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 508 KB
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Read Count: 7037834

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Military Courts, Civil-Military Relations, and the Legal Battle for Democracy by Brett J. Kyle,Andrew G. Reiter Book Resume:

The interaction between military and civilian courts, the political power that legal prerogatives can provide to the armed forces, and the difficult process civilian politicians face in reforming military justice remain glaringly under-examined, despite their implications for the quality and survival of democracy. This book breaks new ground by providing a theoretically rich, global examination of the operation and reform of military courts in democratic countries. Drawing on a newly created dataset of 120 countries over more than two centuries, it presents the first comprehensive picture of the evolution of military justice across states and over time. Combined with qualitative historical case studies of Colombia, Portugal, Indonesia, Fiji, Brazil, Pakistan, and the United States, the book presents a new framework for understanding how civilian actors are able to gain or lose legal control of the armed forces. The book’s findings have important lessons for scholars and policymakers working in the fields of democracy, civil-military relations, human rights, and the rule of law.

Military Justice: A Very Short Introduction

Military Justice: A Very Short Introduction [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0199303509
Author: Eugene R. Fidell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
File Size: 874 KB
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Military Justice: A Very Short Introduction by Eugene R. Fidell Book Resume:

"You can't handle the truth." These iconic words, bellowed by Jack Nicholson as Colonel Jessup in the 1992 movie A Few Good Men, became an emblem of the conflict between honor and truth that the collective imagination often considers the quintessence of military justice. The military is the rare part of contemporary society that enjoys the privilege of policing its own members' behavior, with special courts and a separate body of rules. Whether one is for or against this system, military trials are fascinating and little understood. This book opens a window on the military judicial system, offering an accessible and balanced assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of military legal regimes around the world. It illuminates US military justice through a comparison with civilian and foreign models for the administration of justice, with a particular emphasis on the UK and Canadian military justice systems. Drawing on his experience as a serving officer, private practitioner, and law professor, Eugene R. Fidell presents a hard-hitting tour of the field, exploring military justice trends across different countries and compliance (or lack thereof) with contemporary human rights standards. He digs into critical issues such as the response to sexual assault in the armed forces, the challenges of protecting judicial independence, and the effect of social media and modern technology on age-old traditions of military discipline. A rich series of case studies, ranging from examples of misconduct, such as the devastating Abu Ghraib photos, to political tangles, such as the Guantánamo military commissions, throw light on the high profile and occasionally obscure circumstances that emerge from today's military operations around the world. As Fidell's account shows, by understanding the mechanism of military justice we can better comprehend the political values of a country.

Military Justice

Military Justice [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1437984339
Author: R. Chuck Mason
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
File Size: 462 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4568501

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Military Justice by R. Chuck Mason Book Resume:

In the criminal law system, some basic objectives are to discover the truth, acquit the innocent without unnecessary delay or expense, punish the guilty proportionately with their crimes, and prevent and deter further crime, thereby providing for the public order. Military justice shares these objectives in part, but also serves to enhance discipline throughout the Armed Forces, serving the overall objective of providing an effective national defense. Contents of this report: Intro.; Military Courts-Martial: Jurisdiction; Types of Offenses; Investigation; Types of Courts-Martial: Summary Courts-Martial; Special Courts-Martial; General Courts-Martial; Post-Trial Review; Appellate Review; Selected Procedural Safeguards. Illus. This is a print on demand report.

Military Justice: A Very Short Introduction

Military Justice: A Very Short Introduction [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0199303517
Author: Eugene R. Fidell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
File Size: 929 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7690367

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Military Justice: A Very Short Introduction by Eugene R. Fidell Book Resume:

"You can't handle the truth." These iconic words, bellowed by Jack Nicholson as Colonel Jessup in the 1992 movie A Few Good Men, became an emblem of the conflict between honor and truth that the collective imagination often considers the quintessence of military justice. The military is the rare part of contemporary society that enjoys the privilege of policing its own members' behavior, with special courts and a separate body of rules. Whether one is for or against this system, military trials are fascinating and little understood. This book opens a window on the military judicial system, offering an accessible and balanced assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of military legal regimes around the world. It illuminates US military justice through a comparison with civilian and foreign models for the administration of justice, with a particular emphasis on the UK and Canadian military justice systems. Drawing on his experience as a serving officer, private practitioner, and law professor, Eugene R. Fidell presents a hard-hitting tour of the field, exploring military justice trends across different countries and compliance (or lack thereof) with contemporary human rights standards. He digs into critical issues such as the response to sexual assault in the armed forces, the challenges of protecting judicial independence, and the effect of social media and modern technology on age-old traditions of military discipline. A rich series of case studies, ranging from examples of misconduct, such as the devastating Abu Ghraib photos, to political tangles, such as the Guantánamo military commissions, throw light on the high profile and occasionally obscure circumstances that emerge from today's military operations around the world. As Fidell's account shows, by understanding the mechanism of military justice we can better comprehend the political values of a country.

The Supreme Court and Military Justice

The Supreme Court and Military Justice [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1452276285
Author: Jonathan Lurie
Publisher: CQ Press
File Size: 1335 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 3589198

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The Supreme Court and Military Justice by Jonathan Lurie Book Resume:

This book addresses the body of statutory and case law covering both the military and military conduct. Four chapters discuss the relationship between the Supreme Court and military justice, covering the Civil War era, World War II, the post-war period from 1956 to 1987, and developments since the September 11, 2001, attacks. Each chapter also includes a set of documents that shed light on these periods of U.S. history. Excerpts from key Supreme Court briefs and rulings are complemented by articles from the Army Times, the Armed Forces Journal, and mass media including the New York Times and The Nation. Incisive introductions to these documents explain the evolution of constitutional law and the ways in which federal and state statutes have lessened the effectiveness of both civilian control over the military and civilian judicial oversight.

Military Justice and the Right to Counsel

Military Justice and the Right to Counsel [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0813188164
Author: S. Sidney Ulmer
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
File Size: 880 KB
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Read Count: 5291031

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Military Justice and the Right to Counsel by S. Sidney Ulmer Book Resume:

In Military Justice and the Right to Counsel, S. Sidney Ulmer seeks to explore and compare the right to counsel that has been afforded the American serviceman and that which has been granted his citizen counterpart in the civil courts. The civil and constitutional rights of the serviceman and the civilian in the context of criminal prosecutions are implemented in two distinct legal settings a civil system of state and federal courts, including the United States Supreme Court, and a military system composed of courts martial, boards of review, and the United States Court of Military Appeals. Ulmer suggests that in a political system in which individual preferences are given equal weight, the values of the priorities adopted in the civil society will inevitably encroach upon the variant values of any military sub-society involving substantial numbers of people who participate in both.

Military Justice: Oversight and Better Collaboration Needed for Sexual Assault Investigations and Adjudications

Military Justice: Oversight and Better Collaboration Needed for Sexual Assault Investigations and Adjudications [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1437988059
Author: Brenda S. Farrell
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
File Size: 1784 KB
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Read Count: 5084713

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Military Justice: Oversight and Better Collaboration Needed for Sexual Assault Investigations and Adjudications by Brenda S. Farrell Book Resume:

The crime of sexual assault has serious consequences for both the aggrieved and the accused. The severity of these consequences underscores the importance of impartially administering justice in order to promote accountability and confidence that such allegations are taken seriously. This report addresses the extent to which: (1) the Department of Defense (DoD) conducts oversight of the military services¿ investigative organizations; and (2) the services provide resources for investigations and adjudications of alleged sexual assault incidents. The report also identified an issue relating to the military¿s criminal code during this review. Table and figure. This is a print on demand report.

Atrocity and American Military Justice in Southeast Asia

Atrocity and American Military Justice in Southeast Asia [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1135172358
Author: Louise Barnett
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 607 KB
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Read Count: 6896303

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Atrocity and American Military Justice in Southeast Asia by Louise Barnett Book Resume:

This book is an examination of American army legal proceedings that resulted from a series of moments when soldiers in a war zone crossed a line between performing their legitimate functions and committing crimes against civilians, or atrocities. Using individual judicial proceedings held within war-time Southeast Asia, Louise Barnett analyses how the American military legal system handled crimes against civilians and determines what these cases reveal about the way that war produces atrocity against civilians. Presenting these atrocities and subsequent trials in a way that considers both the personal and the institutional the author considers how and why atrocity happens, the terrain of justification, and the degree to which the army and American society have been willing to take military crimes against civilians seriously. Atrocity and American Military Justice in Southeast Asia will be of interest to students, scholars and professionals interested in Military Justice, Military history and Southeast Asian History more generally.

Court-Martial: How Military Justice Has Shaped America from the Revolution to 9/11 and Beyond

Court-Martial: How Military Justice Has Shaped America from the Revolution to 9/11 and Beyond [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0393243419
Author: Chris Bray
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
File Size: 1313 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 156627

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Court-Martial: How Military Justice Has Shaped America from the Revolution to 9/11 and Beyond by Chris Bray Book Resume:

A timely, provocative account of how military justice has shaped American society since the nation’s beginnings. Historian and former soldier Chris Bray tells the sweeping story of military justice from the earliest days of the republic to contemporary arguments over using military courts to try foreign terrorists or soldiers accused of sexual assault. Stretching from the American Revolution to 9/11, Court-Martial recounts the stories of famous American court-martials, including those involving President Andrew Jackson, General William Tecumseh Sherman, Lieutenant Jackie Robinson, and Private Eddie Slovik. Bray explores how encounters of freed slaves with the military justice system during the Civil War anticipated the civil rights movement, and he explains how the Uniform Code of Military Justice came about after World War II. With a great eye for narrative, Bray hones in on the human elements of these stories, from Revolutionary-era militiamen demanding the right to participate in political speech as citizens, to black soldiers risking their lives during the Civil War to demand fair pay, to the struggles over the court-martial of Lieutenant William Calley and the events of My Lai during the Vietnam War. Throughout, Bray presents readers with these unvarnished voices and his own perceptive commentary. Military justice may be separate from civilian justice, but it is thoroughly entwined with American society. As Bray reminds us, the history of American military justice is inextricably the history of America, and Court-Martial powerfully documents the many ways that the separate justice system of the armed forces has served as a proxy for America’s ongoing arguments over equality, privacy, discrimination, security, and liberty.

AR 27-10 10/03/2011 MILITARY JUSTICE , Survival Ebooks

AR 27-10 10/03/2011 MILITARY JUSTICE , Survival Ebooks [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Us Department Of Defense,www.survivalebooks.com,Department of Defense,Delene Kvasnicka,United States Government US Army,United States Army,Department of the Army,U. S. Army,Army,DOD,The United States Army
Publisher: Delene Kvasnicka www.survivalebooks.com
File Size: 1650 KB
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Read Count: 370801

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AR 27-10 10/03/2011 MILITARY JUSTICE , Survival Ebooks by Us Department Of Defense,www.survivalebooks.com,Department of Defense,Delene Kvasnicka,United States Government US Army,United States Army,Department of the Army,U. S. Army,Army,DOD,The United States Army Book Resume:

AR 27-10 10/03/2011 MILITARY JUSTICE , Survival Ebooks

Military Justice: A Guide to the Issues

Military Justice: A Guide to the Issues [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1573567531
Author: Lawrence J. Morris
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
File Size: 331 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5335332

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Military Justice: A Guide to the Issues by Lawrence J. Morris Book Resume:

Public, press, and academic interest in the military justice system has increased over the past generation. This is a result of several high-profile trials (the Sergeant Major of the Army and Kelly Flinn, among many others), a popular TV show (even if it was Navy JAGs), and broader public attention to and interest in the military, stemming from the post-Cold War prominence of the military (Gulf War I, Balkans, and post-9/11 operations). In addition, some of the more prominent cases from the war in Iraq, including Abu Ghraib and detainee cases, as well as the GTMO military commissions, have kept military justice in the news. There are many misconceptions about the rudiments of the military justice system. Many perceive severity where there is none (though there are features that differ from the civilian system, sometimes unfavorably for the accused), and few are aware of its unique protections and features. Senators Lott and McConnell were not unique in the inaccurate perceptions they publicly stated about military justice during hearings on military tribunals. This volume would accomplish two main purposes: (1) provide comprehensive, accurate, and current information about the military justice system and related disciplinary features, written in laymen's language; and (2) explain the system through some illustrative or engaging anecdotes (e.g., the trials of Billy Mitchell, William Calley, and the World War II Nazi saboteurs, whose capture and trial provide the basis for today's Guantanamo-based trials of suspected terrorists).

Military Justice Handbook

Military Justice Handbook [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1481787764
Author: A.S. Paphiti
Publisher: AuthorHouse
File Size: 683 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7357124

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Military Justice Handbook by A.S. Paphiti Book Resume:

The military justice system (MJS) comprises the body of law that governs the disciplinary processes within the three Services. It is important to have a separate justice system to ensure that wherever in the world a serviceman is, if he commits a crime or a disciplinary infraction, he knows he will be dealt with according to military law. The prosecution of civilians subject to Service discipline and young offenders is also included. Until 2006, each Service had its own disciplinary system and disciplinary act. The Armed Forces Act 2006 introduced a uniform system for the three Services, harmonizing the offences and methods of disposal. This was an enormous undertaking, which has been largely successful. The legislation still remains a complex area, which is daunting to those who are unfamiliar with the system. This handbook attempts to cover the key provisions. To make the task of advising clients a little easier, by “speaking the same language,” a useful list is included of some common acronyms used in the Services. Bearing in mind the volume of law and regulation, this book is principally designed to give some useful background information about the Service disciplinary system and provide an insight into the main offences charged at summary hearing and court martial. It is a sort of “road map” of the military justice system, which complements the excellent Manual of Service Law and Judge Advocate General’s guidance.

Fundamentals of Military Law

Fundamentals of Military Law [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 9811362483
Author: Jian Zhou
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 1010 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 2837288

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Fundamentals of Military Law by Jian Zhou Book Resume:

The book makes a comprehensive analysis of the basic principles and theories of military law, restructuring the theoretic framework of military law. It also puts forwards the new concepts of “core military law” and “international military law” for the first time in China, and even the world. The book could help legal scholars and lawyers, especially military lawyers and research fellows in military law, to have a new approach to study military law.

Death or Deliverance

Death or Deliverance [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0774825707
Author: Teresa Iacobelli
Publisher: UBC Press
File Size: 944 KB
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Read Count: 8692370

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Death or Deliverance by Teresa Iacobelli Book Resume:

Soldiers found guilty of desertion or cowardice during the Great War faced death by firing squad. Novels, histories, movies, and television series often depict courts martial as brutal and inflexible, and social memories of this system of frontline justice have inspired modern movements to seek pardons for soldiers executed on the battlefield. In this powerful and moving book, Teresa Iacobelli looks beyond stories of callous generals and quick executions to consider the trials of nearly two hundred soldiers who were sentenced to death but spared by a disciplinary system capable of thoughtful review and compassion. By bringing to light these men's experiences, Death or Deliverance reconsiders an important chapter in the history of both a war and a nation.

Shaping US Military Law

Shaping US Military Law [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317055772
Author: Joshua E. Kastenberg
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1961 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 1238015

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Shaping US Military Law by Joshua E. Kastenberg Book Resume:

Since the United States’ entry into World War II, the federal judiciary has taken a prominent role in the shaping of the nation’s military laws. Yet, a majority of the academic legal community studying the relationship between the Court and the military establishment argues otherwise providing the basis for a further argument that the legal construct of the military establishment is constitutionally questionable. Centering on the Cold War era from 1968 onward, this book weaves judicial biography and a historic methodology based on primary source materials into its analysis and reviews several military law judicial decisions ignored by other studies. This book is not designed only for legal scholars. Its intended audience consists of Cold War, military, and political historians, as well as political scientists, and, military and national security policy makers. Although the book’s conclusions are likely to be favored by the military establishment, the purpose of this book is to accurately analyze the intersection of the later twentieth century’s American military, political, social, and cultural history and the operation of the nation’s armed forces from a judicial vantage.

Conscientious Objector

Conscientious Objector [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1480897043
Author: Wayne R. Ferren Jr.
Publisher: Archway Publishing
File Size: 603 KB
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Read Count: 403552

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Conscientious Objector by Wayne R. Ferren Jr. Book Resume:

What would you do if you were drafted to fight in a war? As a conscientious objector opposed to all wars, Wayne R. Ferren Jr. had to answer that question during the Vietnam War. He called on his religious and scientific backgrounds as well as his environmental activism to argue that he should be excluded from fighting in, or supporting this war. Following a successful defense of his claim, Wayne served two years of alternative civilian service, which influenced his professional and personal life for the next fifty years. Decades after his service, he was shocked to find his name on the Vietnam War Memorial, which turned out to be that of another young man with a similar name born the same year Wayne was born. That man died in 1968 when his plane was hit by artillery fire and crash landed at Khe Sanh Marine Combat Base. He will forever remain a teenage father killed in a senseless war. To this day, the duality haunts the author, and in this multifaceted memoir, he looks back at a lifetime and how his background, scientific training, and transcendentalism have guided him on a path of conscientious objection, service, and conservation, believing all things are sacred.

The Blackstone of Military Law

The Blackstone of Military Law [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0810863014
Author: Joshua E. Kastenberg
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
File Size: 1454 KB
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Read Count: 7545721

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The Blackstone of Military Law by Joshua E. Kastenberg Book Resume:

Colonel William Winthrop singularly was the most influential person in developing the military law of the United States. A half century ago, the Supreme Court tendered to Winthrop the title, 'The Blackstone of Military Law,' meaning simply that his influence outshone all others. He has been cited over 20 times by the highest court and well over a 1,000 times by other federal courts, state courts, and legal texts. In this, he surpasses most other legal scholars, save Joseph Story, John Marshall, or Felix Frankfurter. But while biographies of each of these Supreme Court Justices have been written, there has been none to date on Winthrop. The Blackstone of Military Law: Colonel William Winthrop is the first biography on this important figure in military and legal history. Written in both a chronological and thematic format, author Joshua E. Kastenberg begins with Winthrop's legal training, his involvement in abolitionism, his military experiences during the Civil War, and his long tenure as a judge advocate. This biography provides the necessary context to fully appreciate Winthrop's work, its meaning, and its continued relevance.

Roman Military Law

Roman Military Law [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0292758170
Author: C. E. Brand
Publisher: University of Texas Press
File Size: 847 KB
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Read Count: 4995207

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Roman Military Law by C. E. Brand Book Resume:

Rome was the law-giver for much of the modern world. She was also the greatest military power of antiquity, operating her military organization with remarkable efficiency and effectiveness throughout most of the then-known world. In view of the importance of both the legal and military aspects of the Roman Empire, an account of their combination in a system of disciplinary control for the Roman armies is of considerable significance to historians in both fields—and, in fact, to scholars in general. In Roman Military Law, C. E. Brand describes this system of control. Since a characterization of such a system can be made most meaningful only against a background of Roman constitutional government and in the light of ideologies current at the time, Brand follows his initial “Note on Sources” with a sketch of the contemporary Roman scene. This first section includes a discussion of the Roman constitution and an examination of Roman criminal law. The history of Rome, as a republic, principate, and empire, extended over a period of a thousand years, so any attempt to represent a generalized picture must be essentially a matter of extraction and condensation from the voluminous literature of the whole era. Nevertheless, from the fantastic evolution that is the history of Rome, Brand has been able to construct a more or less static historical mosaic that may be considered typically “Roman.” This comes into sharpest focus during the period of the Punic Wars, when the city and its people were most intensely Roman. The picture of the Roman armies is set into this basic framework, in chapters dealing with military organization, disciplinary organization, religion and discipline, and offenses and punishments. The final section of the book considers briefly the vast changes in Roman institutions that came about under the armies of the Empire, and then concludes with the Latin text and an English translation of the only known code of Roman military justice, promulgated sometime during the later Empire, preserved in Byzantine literature, and handed down to medieval times in Latin translations of Byzantine Greek law, which it has heretofore been confused.

The Oxford Handbook of Criminal Law

The Oxford Handbook of Criminal Law [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0191654604
Author: Markus D Dubber,Tatjana Hörnle
Publisher: OUP Oxford
File Size: 537 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 9739745

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The Oxford Handbook of Criminal Law by Markus D Dubber,Tatjana Hörnle Book Resume:

The Oxford Handbook of Criminal Law reflects the continued transformation of criminal law into a global discipline, providing scholars with a comprehensive international resource, a common point of entry into cutting edge contemporary research and a snapshot of the state and scope of the field. To this end, the Handbook takes a broad approach to its subject matter, disciplinarily, geographically, and systematically. Its contributors include current and future research leaders representing a variety of legal systems, methodologies, areas of expertise, and research agendas. The Handbook is divided into four parts: Approaches & Methods (I), Systems & Methods (II), Aspects & Issues (III), and Contexts & Comparisons (IV). Part I includes essays exploring various methodological approaches to criminal law (such as criminology, feminist studies, and history). Part II provides an overview of systems or models of criminal law, laying the foundation for further inquiry into specific conceptions of criminal law as well as for comparative analysis (such as Islamic, Marxist, and military law). Part III covers the three aspects of the penal process: the definition of norms and principles of liability (substantive criminal law), along with a less detailed treatment of the imposition of norms (criminal procedure) and the infliction of sanctions (prison or corrections law). Contributors consider the basic topics traditionally addressed in scholarship on the general and special parts of the substantive criminal law (such as jurisdiction, mens rea, justifications, and excuses). Part IV places criminal law in context, both domestically and transnationally, by exploring the contrasts between criminal law and other species of law and state power and by investigating criminal law's place in the projects of comparative law, transnational, and international law.