Masculinity And Femininity

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Masculinity and Femininity

Masculinity and Femininity [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1477303111
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Publisher: University of Texas Press
File Size: 1107 KB
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Read Count: 7160341

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Masculinity and Femininity by Book Resume:

Many societies assign sharply distinguished roles to men and women. Personality differences, as well as physical differences, between men and women are used to justify these different sex roles, and women are seen as more emotionally and interpersonally sensitive than men, while men are said to be more competent, achievement oriented, and assertive than women. A widely held view is that not only do men and women differ but that possession of "masculine" characteristics precludes possession of "feminine" characteristics. This bipolar conception has led to the definition of masculinity and femininity as opposites. Acceptance of this idea has caused social scientists and laypersons to consider men and women who possess cross-sex personality characteristics as less emotionally healthy and socially adjusted than those with sex-appropriate traits. Previous research by the authors and others, done almost exclusively with college students, has shown, however, that masculinity and femininity do not relate negatively to each other, thus supporting a dualistic rather than a bipolar conception of these two psychological dimensions. Spence and Helmreich present data showing that the dualistic conception holds for a large number of groups, varying widely in age, geographical location, socioeconomic status, and patterns of interest, whose psychological masculinity and femininity were measured with an objective instrument, the Personality Attributes Questionnaire, devised by the authors. Many individuals are shown to be appropriately sex-typed; that is, men tend to be high in masculinity and low in femininity and women the reverse. However, a substantial number of men and women are androgynous—high in both masculine and feminine characteristics—while some are not high in either. Importantly, the authors find that androgynous individuals display more self-esteem, social competence, and achievement orientation than individuals who are strong in either masculinity or femininity or are not strong in either. One of the major contributions of the work is the development of a new, multifaceted measure of achievement motivation (the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire), which can be used successfully to predict behavior in both males and females and is related to masculinity and femininity in both sexes. In addition to investigating the correlates of masculinity and femininity, the authors attempt to isolate parental factors that contribute to the development of these characteristics and achievement motivation. The book includes analyses of data from students on their perception of their parents, which enable the authors to examine the influence of parental masculinity and femininity and parental behaviors and child-rearing attitudes on the development of masculinity and femininity and achievement motivation characteristics in their children. The important implications of these findings for theories of sex roles, personality development, and achievement motivation are examined.

Masculinity and Femininity

Masculinity and Femininity [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1506319475
Author: Geert Hofstede
Publisher: SAGE Publications
File Size: 1954 KB
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Read Count: 3120503

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Masculinity and Femininity by Geert Hofstede Book Resume:

Masculinity and Femininity is the first in-depth discussion of the masculinity dimension, and how it can help us to understand differences amongst cultures. Geert Hofstede begins with a general explanation of the masculinity dimension, and discusses how it illuminates broad features of different cultures. Parts Two, Three and Four apply the dimension more specifically to gender (and gender identity), sexuality (and sexual behaviour), and religion, probably the most influential variable of all. The book closes with a syntesizing statement about cultural values as they are linked to sexulaity, gender and religion.

Gender Hierarchy of Masculinity and Femininity during the Chinese Cultural Revolution

Gender Hierarchy of Masculinity and Femininity during the Chinese Cultural Revolution [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1000220958
Author: Zhuying Li
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1474 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 3257393

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Gender Hierarchy of Masculinity and Femininity during the Chinese Cultural Revolution by Zhuying Li Book Resume:

Focusing on the influence of Maoist ideology and masculinist power on the representations of women in revolutionary opera films made during the Cultural Revolution, this book considers the gendered hierarchy between masculinity and femininity in relation to the historic and cultural context in which they were made. Using feminist methodology and epistemology to locate women’s social identity, this book explores the sociological connections between the masculinisation of women and masculinist domination in the context of the Cultural Revolution. Through film analysis, the author examines whether women, rather than 'liberated', were in fact re-gendered and oppressed by masculinist power. By critically evaluating gender hierarchy during the Chinese Cultural Revolution, the book provides hitherto neglected insights into gender within its social and cultural context. This an interdisciplinary book which should appeal to students and scholars across a range of disciplines, including gender studies, Asian studies, China studies, cultural studies and film studies.

Sex and Gender

Sex and Gender [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0429918917
Author: Robert J. Stoller
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1158 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7597302

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Sex and Gender by Robert J. Stoller Book Resume:

In this book, the author describes patients with marked abberrations in their masculinity and feminity--primarily transsexuals, transvestites and patients with marked biological abnormalities of their sex - in order to find clues to gender development in more normal people.

Masculine and Feminine

Masculine and Feminine [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0834828669
Author: Gareth S. Hill
Publisher: Shambhala Publications
File Size: 816 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 38551

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Masculine and Feminine by Gareth S. Hill Book Resume:

A Jungian analyst provides a new model for understanding the masculine and feminine principles that exist in everyone, providing insight into the events of daily life and the themes of entire lifetimes.

Gendering Migration

Gendering Migration [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1351934333
Author: Wendy Webster
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 999 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 326060

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Gendering Migration by Wendy Webster Book Resume:

Gendering Migration demonstrates the significance of studying migration through the lens of gender and ethnicity and the contribution this perspective makes to migration histories. Through a consideration of the impact of migration on men and masculine identities as well as women and feminine identities, it extends our understanding of questions of gender and migration, focusing on the history of migration to Britain after the Second World War. The volume draws on oral narratives as well as documentary and archival research to demonstrate the important role played by gender and ethnicity, both in ideas and images of migrants and in migrants' own experiences. The contributors consider a range of migrant and refugee groups who came to Britain in the twentieth century: Caribbean, East-African Asian, German, Greek, Irish, Kurdish, Pakistani, Polish and Spanish. The fresh interpretations offered here make this an important new book for scholars and students of migration, ethnicity, gender and modern British history.

Masculinity, Femininity, and American Political Behavior

Masculinity, Femininity, and American Political Behavior [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0190462833
Author: Monika L. McDermott
Publisher: Oxford University Press
File Size: 1820 KB
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Read Count: 5162451

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Masculinity, Femininity, and American Political Behavior by Monika L. McDermott Book Resume:

What influences political behavior more -- one's gender or one's gendered personality traits? Certain gendered traits have long been associated with particular political leanings in American politics. For example, the Democratic Party is thought to have a compassionate, feminine nature while the Republican Party is deemed to have a tougher, more masculine nature. Masculinity, Femininity, and American Political Behavior, a first-of-its-kind analysis of the effects of individuals' gendered personality traits -- masculinity and femininity -- on their political attitudes and behavior, argues that gendered personalities, and not biological sex, are what drive the political behavior of individual citizens. Drawing on a groundbreaking national survey measuring gendered personality traits and political preferences, the book shows that individuals' levels of masculine and feminine personality traits help to determine their party identification, vote choice, ideology, and political engagement. And in conjunction with biological sex, these traits also influence attitudes about sex roles. For example, the more strongly an individual identifies with "feminine" characteristics, the more strongly they identify with the Democratic Party. Likewise, the more "masculine" an individual, the more they are drawn to the GOP. The book also demonstrates that, despite conventional wisdom, biological sex does not dictate gendered personalities. As such, the personality trait approach of the book moves gender and politics research well beyond the traditional male/female dichotomy. Moreover, Masculinity, Femininity, and American Political Behavior points to new and as yet underexplored strategies for candidate campaigns, get out the vote efforts, and officeholders' governing behavior.

Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A

Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1452900035
Author: Hale Martin, Stephen E. Finn
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
File Size: 584 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6495991

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Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A by Hale Martin, Stephen E. Finn Book Resume:

Gender in Interaction

Gender in Interaction [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 902729741X
Author: Bettina Baron,Helga Kotthoff
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
File Size: 738 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5948327

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Gender in Interaction by Bettina Baron,Helga Kotthoff Book Resume:

In this volume, gender is seen as a communicative achievement and as a social category interacting with other social parametres such as age, status, prestige, institutional and ethnic frameworks, cultural and situative contexts. The authors come from a variety of backgrounds such as sociology of communication, anthropological linguistics, sociolinguistics, social psychology, and text linguistics. Masculinity and femininity are conceived of as varying culturally, historically and contextually. All contributions discuss empirical research of communication and the question of whether (and how) gender is a salient variable in discourse. So, one aim of the book is to trace the varying relevance of gender in interaction. Emotion politics, ideology, body concepts, and speech styles are related to ethnographic description of the contexts within which communication takes place. These contexts range from private to public communication, and from mixed-sex to same-sex conversations framed by different cultural backgrounds (Australian, German, Georgian, Turkish, US-American).

Femininity, Masculinity, and Sexuality in Morocco and Hollywood

Femininity, Masculinity, and Sexuality in Morocco and Hollywood [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 3319532855
Author: Osire Glacier
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 1787 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 8743761

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Femininity, Masculinity, and Sexuality in Morocco and Hollywood by Osire Glacier Book Resume:

This book is the first to formulate an ideology of emancipation for women in Morocco. Beginning with constructs of the body, femininity and masculinity, it analyzes the central role played by the sociopolitical writing of sexuality in creating gender hierarchy. The author focuses on Morocco, while drawing parallels with Hollywood cinema, one of the great producers of femininity and masculinity, and conducts an exhaustive examination of constructs of femininity and masculinity in language, social practices, cultural productions and legal texts. The objectives of this project are tripartite: it exposes the dynamics that devalue women’s humanity; it charts the schemas of their sexual, economic and sociopolitical exploitation; and it advances concrete solutions for re-establishing women’s human dignity.

Impossible Bodies

Impossible Bodies [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1136284435
Author: Christine Holmlund
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1585 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4783639

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Impossible Bodies by Christine Holmlund Book Resume:

Impossible Bodies investigates issues of ethnicity, gender, and sexuality in contemporary Hollywood. Examining stars from Arnold Schwarzenegger and Clint Eastwood, to Whoopi Goldberg and Jennifer Lopez, Holmlund focuses on actors whose physique or appearance marks them as unusual or exceptional, and yet who occupy key and revealing positions in today's mainstream cinema. Exploring a range of genres and considering both stars and their sidekicks, Holmlund examines ways in which Hollywood accommodates - or doesn't - a variety of 'impossible' bodies, from the 'outrageous' physiques of Dolph Lundgren and Dolly Parton, to the almost-invisible bodies of Asian-Americans, Latinas and older actors.

The Gender of Photography

The Gender of Photography [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1000213161
Author: Nicole Hudgins
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 338 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 1372576

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The Gender of Photography by Nicole Hudgins Book Resume:

It would be unthinkable now to omit early female pioneers from any survey of photography's history in the Western world. Yet for many years the gendered language of American, British and French photographic literature made it appear that women's interactions with early photography did not count as significant contributions. Using French and English photo journals, cartoons, art criticism, novels, and early career guides aimed at women, this volume will show why and how early photographic clubs, journals, exhibitions, and studios insisted on masculine values and authority, and how Victorian women engaged with photography despite that dominant trend. Focusing on the period before 1890, when women were yet to develop the self-assurance that would lead to broader recognition of the value of their work, this study probes the mechanisms by which exclusion took place and explores how women practiced photography anyway, both as amateurs and professionals. Challenging the marginalization of women’s work in the early history of photography, this is essential reading for students and scholars of photography, history and gender studies.

Feminine/Masculine and Representation

Feminine/Masculine and Representation [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 100025707X
Author: Terry Threadgold,Anne Cranny-Francis
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1818 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7072633

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Feminine/Masculine and Representation by Terry Threadgold,Anne Cranny-Francis Book Resume:

Feminine/Masculine and Representation provides a much needed introduction to a number of challenging issues raised in debates within gender studies, critical theory and cultural studies. In analysing cultural processes using a range of different methods, the essays in this collection focus on gender/sexuality, representation and cultural politics across a variety of media.

Gendered Pasts

Gendered Pasts [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1442658916
Author: Kathryn McPherson,Cecilia Morgan,Nancy Forestell
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
File Size: 1009 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4574607

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Gendered Pasts by Kathryn McPherson,Cecilia Morgan,Nancy Forestell Book Resume:

It is commonplace today to suggest that gender is socially constructed, that the roles women and men fulfill in their daily lives have been created and defined for them by society and social institutions. But how have men and women negotiated and navigated the gender roles that have been thrust upon them? With Gendered Pasts, Kathryn McPherson, Cecilia Morgan, and Nancy M. Forestell have collected eleven engaging essays that seek to answer this question in a wide-ranging exploration of specific gendered dimensions of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Canadian history. The contributors cover all manner of topics related to gender and history across Canada, including: female vagrancy; gambling, drinking, and sex; the role of the miner's wife; the portrayal of gay men; and the sharply defined role of nurses. Unusual in its breadth, Gendered Pasts is essential to the understanding of the various threads and themes in Canadian gender history. Previously published by Oxford University Press.

Symbolism of Masculinity and Femininity

Symbolism of Masculinity and Femininity [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 3662403978
Author: Gerard A. de Wit
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 609 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4312785

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Symbolism of Masculinity and Femininity by Gerard A. de Wit Book Resume:

Aspects of the Masculine

Aspects of the Masculine [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317529308
Author: C.G. Jung
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1289 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5239208

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Aspects of the Masculine by C.G. Jung Book Resume:

The concept of masculinity was crucial not only to Jung's revolutionary theories of the human psyche, but also to his own personal development. If, as Jung believed, "modern man is already so darkened that nothing beyond the light of his own intellect illuminates his world," then it is essential to show every man the limits of his understanding and how to overcome them. In Aspects of the Masculine Jung does this by revealing his most significant insights concerning the nature and motivations of masculinity, both conscious and unconscious, and explaining how this affects the development of the personality. Offering a unique perspective on the masculine, based upon both his personal and clinical experiences, Jung asks questions that remain as insistent as ever. He offers answers that--whether they surprise, shock or edify--challenge us to re-examine our contemporary understanding of masculinity.

12 Rules for Life

12 Rules for Life [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0345816048
Author: Jordan B. Peterson
Publisher: Random House Canada
File Size: 489 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5588160

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12 Rules for Life by Jordan B. Peterson Book Resume:

#1 NATIONAL BESTSELLER #1 INTERNATIONAL BESTSELLER What does everyone in the modern world need to know? Renowned psychologist Jordan B. Peterson's answer to this most difficult of questions uniquely combines the hard-won truths of ancient tradition with the stunning revelations of cutting-edge scientific research. Humorous, surprising and informative, Dr. Peterson tells us why skateboarding boys and girls must be left alone, what terrible fate awaits those who criticize too easily, and why you should always pet a cat when you meet one on the street. What does the nervous system of the lowly lobster have to tell us about standing up straight (with our shoulders back) and about success in life? Why did ancient Egyptians worship the capacity to pay careful attention as the highest of gods? What dreadful paths do people tread when they become resentful, arrogant and vengeful? Dr. Peterson journeys broadly, discussing discipline, freedom, adventure and responsibility, distilling the world's wisdom into 12 practical and profound rules for life. 12 Rules for Life shatters the modern commonplaces of science, faith and human nature, while transforming and ennobling the mind and spirit of its readers.

The Future is Feminine

The Future is Feminine [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1350149780
Author: Ciara Cremin
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
File Size: 1705 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 8017851

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The Future is Feminine by Ciara Cremin Book Resume:

Carnage in the classroom, misogynists in high office, sociopaths in uniform, masculinity is a killer. From styles of dress to the stunted capacity for expressing a diversity of emotions, becoming a man involves killing off and repudiating anything that in our society is held as feminine. When a person is unable to show compassion and tenderness, or when exposed for their frailties, feels angry and humiliated, they have problems. Problems that none of us are immune to. Masculinity, Cremin provocatively declares, is a generic disorder of a sick society that afflicts even the best of us. Neither a condition of being human nor even of male, it is a disorder, as she illustrates, of a capitalist society that depends and even thrives upon its very symptoms. From the perspective of a trans woman raised to be a man, the book maps the disorder and speculates on the possible means to overcome it. Instead of signifying weakness, catastrophes can be prevented when the qualities men often fear and women often feel subordinated to are prioritised, affirmed and nourished. Drawing, amongst others, on Marx and Freud, Cremin eloquently demonstrates why there can be no future other than one in which we are all reconciled as a society with the feminine. In such a future, the terms 'masculine' and 'feminine' will neither define us nor determine our relationship to one another.

Gender and Power in Eastern Europe

Gender and Power in Eastern Europe [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 3030531309
Author: Katharina Bluhm,Gertrud Pickhan,Justyna Stypinska,Agnieszka Wierzcholska
Publisher: Springer Nature
File Size: 1407 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5509161

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Gender and Power in Eastern Europe by Katharina Bluhm,Gertrud Pickhan,Justyna Stypinska,Agnieszka Wierzcholska Book Resume:

This book explores the contradictory development of gender roles in Central and Eastern Europe including Russia. In light of the social changes that followed the collapse of communism and the rise of new conservatism in Eastern Europe, it studies new forms of gender relationships and reassesses the status quo of female empowerment. Moreover, leading scholars in gender studies discuss how right-wing populism and conservative movements have affected sociopolitical discourses and concepts related to gender roles, rights, and attitudes, and how Western feminism in the 1990s may have contributed to this conservative turn. Mainly focusing on power constellations and gender, the book is divided into four parts: the first explores the history of and recent trends in feminist movements in Eastern Europe, while the second highlights the dynamics and conflicts that gained momentum after neoconservative parties gained political power in post-socialist countries. In turn, the third part discusses new empowerment strategies and changes in gender relationships. The final part illustrates the identities, roles, and concepts of masculinity created in the sociocultural and political context of Eastern Europe.

Gender, Power, and Communication in Human Relationships

Gender, Power, and Communication in Human Relationships [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1136480501
Author: Pamela J. Kalbfleisch,Michael J. Cody
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 813 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 8188349

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Gender, Power, and Communication in Human Relationships by Pamela J. Kalbfleisch,Michael J. Cody Book Resume:

This edited volume establishes a state-of-the-art perspective on theory and research on gender, power, and communication in human relationships. Both theoretical essays and review chapters address issues relevant to female and male differences in power, dominance, communication, equality, and expectations/beliefs. All chapter contributors share two commonalities. First, each provides a 1990s assessment of power and equality in female and male relationships. Second, each reviews respective programs of research and focuses attention on the relevance of this research to understanding the relationships of women and men. Unique because it incorporates a multidisciplinary approach to the study of gender and the communication of power in human relationships, this book includes the original work of intellectuals with national and international reputations in the social sciences. The volume provides both scholastic breadth and centralized treatment of issues that form the very foundation of social and personal relationships. It will appeal to scholars working in the disciplines of communication and psychology as well as other areas of social science research.