Culture Of Class

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Culture of Class

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Culture of Class by Matthew B. Karush Book Resume:

Major change came to Argentina during the first decades of the twentieth century. Following the mass influx of European immigrants to the country during the beginning of the century, a truly national culture was produced through mass media, facilitating the assimilation of immigrants and their descendants. New forms of media emerged, such as radio and cinema, as did new forms of entertainment, such as tango songs, films, and radio theater. Yet despite the unifying effect of popular culture, the nation remained divided, and, if anything, more so in 1950 than in 1910. This book argues that the key to understanding this paradox lies in a reassessment of the mass culture of the 1920s and 1930s. With a focus on film and radio in and around Buenos Aires, the locus of production as well as much of the market consumption, Karush shows how integration and class fractures occurred simultaneously in a short span of the country's history. He brings together the usually separated subjects of radio and cinema to show how they can combine to gauge a larger cultural and political environment and shed light on class distinctions. The book contributes to an ongoing discussion of the relationship between power and mass culture. It will be of interest to scholars of cultural history and urban studies and those interested in Latin American history and culture.

Cultures of Servitude

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Cultures of Servitude by Raka Ray,Seemin Qayum Book Resume:

Domestic servitude blurs the divide between family and work, affection and duty, the home and the world. In Cultures of Servitude, Raka Ray and Seemin Qayum offer an ethnographic account of domestic life and servitude in contemporary Kolkata, India, with a concluding comparison with New York City. Focused on employers as well as servants, men as well as women, across multiple generations, they examine the practices and meaning of servitude around the home and in the public sphere. This book shifts the conversations surrounding domestic service away from an emphasis on the crisis of transnational care work to one about the constitution of class. It reveals how employers position themselves as middle and upper classes through evolving methods of servant and home management, even as servants grapple with the challenges of class and cultural distinction embedded in relations of domination and inequality.

Reaching Across Boundaries of Culture and Class

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Reaching Across Boundaries of Culture and Class by RoseMarie Pérez Foster,Michael Moskowitz,Rafael Art Javier Book Resume:

In a world that is forever fragmenting into divisions of ethnicity and class, this groundbreaking book offers an approach to therapy that reaches across the boundaries that usually divide us. Reaffirming psychotherapy's roots in a progressive approach to social change, the contributors show how contemporary methods can be used to treat patients often previously thought unresponsive to psychodynamic therapy. Cultural values, countertransference guilt, immigration, bilingualism, and battered self-esteem in African-American patients are among the many topics discussed. Numerous examples guide the clinician to a better understanding of the role of culture in the therapeutic relationship. A Jason Aronson BookIn a world that is forever fragmenting into divisions of ethnicity and class, this groundbreaking book offers an approach to therapy that reaches across the boundaries that usually divide us. Reaffirming psychotherapy's roots in a progressive approach to social change, the contributors show how contemporary methods can be used to treat patients often previously thought unresponsive to psychodynamic therapy. Cultural values, countertransference guilt, immigration, bilingualism, and battered self-esteem in African-American patients are among the many topics discussed. Numerous examples guide the clinician to a better understanding of the role of culture in the therapeutic relationship.

Korean Workers

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Korean Workers by Hagen Koo Book Resume:

Forty years of rapid industrialization have transformed millions of South Korean peasants and their sons and daughters into urban factory workers. Hagen Koo explores the experiences of this first generation of industrial workers and describes its struggles to improve working conditions in the factory and to search for justice in society. The working class in South Korea was born in a cultural and political environment extremely hostile to its development, Koo says. Korean workers forged their collective identity much more rapidly, however, than did their counterparts in other newly industrialized countries in East Asia. This book investigates how South Korea's once-docile and submissive workers reinvented themselves so quickly into a class with a distinct identity and consciousness. Based on sources ranging from workers' personal writings to union reports to in-depth interviews, this book is a penetrating analysis of the South Korean working-class experience. Koo reveals how culture and politics simultaneously suppressed and facilitated class formation in South Korea. With chapters exploring the roles of women, students, and church organizations in the struggle, the book reflects Koo's broader interest in the social and cultural dimensions of industrial transformation.

Autonomy and Power

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Autonomy and Power by Maria L. Lagos Book Resume:

Maria L. Lagos supplies a fine-grained ethnographic and historical analysis of the intersecting dynamics of class and culture in Tiraque, a province in the highlands of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Class, Culture and Belonging in Rural Childhoods

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Class, Culture and Belonging in Rural Childhoods by Rose Butler Book Resume:

This book explores how rural children negotiate economic insecurity and difference. Based on long-term ethnographic research in rural Australia, it shows that children draw on class-based ideas of moral worth, anchored in racialised and gendered understandings, to negotiate financial hardship and insecurity. Through close observations in the classroom, school yard and the home, and interviews with diverse young people, their parents and teachers, Class, Culture and Belonging in Rural Childhoods takes us deep into children’s everyday struggles and their efforts to manage insecurity and belonging within a polarised economic landscape. This book offers compelling new analysis of children’s experiences at a time of rapid and far-reaching change in rural communities and the world at large. This unique and engaging ethnography of rural Australia makes an important and timely contribution to wider understandings of how children navigate the precarious circumstances of the present.

In the Web of Class

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In the Web of Class by Eric C. Schneider Book Resume:

"An analytic overview of the history of social welfare and juvenile justice in Boston..[Schneider] traces cogently the origins, development, and ultimate failure of Protestant and Catholic reformers' efforts to ameliorate working-class poverty and juvenile delinquency." —Choice "Anyone who wants to understand why America's approach to juvenile justice doesn't work should read In the Web of Class." —Michael B. Katz,University of Pennsylvania

The Culture of Cursilería

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The Culture of Cursilería by Noël Valis Book Resume:

Not easily translated, the Spanish terms cursi and cursilería refer to a cultural phenomenon widely prevalent in Spanish society since the nineteenth century. Like "kitsch," cursi evokes the idea of bad taste, but it also suggests one who has pretensions of refinement and elegance without possessing them. In The Culture of Cursilería, Noël Valis examines the social meanings of cursi, viewing it as a window into modern Spanish history and particularly into the development of middle-class culture. Valis finds evidence in literature, cultural objects, and popular customs to argue that cursilería has its roots in a sense of cultural inadequacy felt by the lower middle classes in nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Spain. The Spain of this era, popularly viewed as the European power most resistant to economic and social modernization, is characterized by Valis as suffering from nostalgia for a bygone, romanticized society that structured itself on strict class delineations. With the development of an economic middle class during the latter half of the nineteenth century, these designations began to break down, and individuals across all levels of the middle class exaggerated their own social status in an attempt to protect their cultural capital. While the resulting manifestations of cursilería were often provincial, indeed backward, the concept was—and still is—closely associated with a sense of home. Ultimately, Valis shows how cursilería embodied the disparity between old ways and new, and how in its awkward manners, airs of pretension, and graceless anxieties it represents Spain's uneasy surrender to the forces of modernity. The Culture of Cursilería will interest students and scholars of Latin America, cultural studies, Spanish literature, and modernity.

Culture, Class, and Critical Theory

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Culture, Class, and Critical Theory by David Gartman Book Resume:

Culture, Class, and Critical Theory develops a theory of culture that explains how ideas create and legitimate class inequalities in modern society. This theory is developed through a critique and comparison of the powerful ideas on culture offered by Pierre Bourdieu and the Frankfurt School thinkers, especially Theodor Adorno. These ideas are illuminated and criticized through the development of two empirical cases on which Gartman has published extensively, automobile design and architecture. Bourdieu and the Frankfurt School postulate opposite theories of the cultural legitimation of class inequalities. Bourdieu argues that the culture of modern society is a class culture, a ranked diversity of beliefs and tastes corresponding to different classes. The cultural beliefs and practices of the dominant class are arbitrarily defined as superior, thus legitimating its greater share of social resources. By contrast, the thinkers of the Frankfurt School conceive of modern culture as a mass culture, a leveled homogeneity in which the ideas and tastes shared by all classes disguises real class inequalities. This creates the illusion of an egalitarian democracy that prevents inequalities from being contested. Through an empirical assessment of the theories against the cases, Gartman reveals that both are correct, but for different parts of modern culture. These parts combine to provide a strong legitimation of class inequalities.

Telesthesia

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Telesthesia by McKenzie Wark Book Resume:

The telegraph, telephone, and television, not to mention the Internet and mobile telephony, are all forms of communication that move information faster than the speed at which objects move. Both labor and capital and armies and commodities once moved at the same speed as the information organizing them. Over the last two centuries, social space has developed a strange folded quality, where physical space comes more and more to be doubled by a space of the movement of information. Telesthesia, or perception at a distance, comes increasingly to characterize how we see and hear and know the world. How does the evolution of different communication forms affect how we can perceive and act? How can the underlying infrastructure of communication forms be detected in the events of everyday life? These are the central questions animating this book. McKenzie Wark first explores relations between metropolitan and peripheral cultures – or postcolonial relations – with close attention to the texture of events that can happen when perception is mediated. He then examines what were once called postmodern experiences, and how relations of communication create new kinds of class relations and experiences of everyday life, from 9/11 to Occupy Wall Street.

Gender, Civic Culture and Consumerism

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Gender, Civic Culture and Consumerism by Alan Kidd,David Nicholls Book Resume:

The essays in this volume deal chiefly with issues of class and gender, which are seen as mutually constitutive of social identity. Recent historical interest in the idea of "modernity" is represented in studies of socio-spatial relations of urban culture and in the emergence of gender-laden conceptions of the modern suburban culture of domesticity and consumerism. Art and art patronage are dissected as cultural motifs suggestive both of gender and rank. The detailed cultural aesthetic of the middle classes is explored from the learned societies of the late eighteenth century to the amateur operatic societies of the twentieth-century suburbs. A key focus is the changing and uncertain representation of masculine identities in relation to class.

Culture and Class in English Public Museums, 1850-1914

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Culture and Class in English Public Museums, 1850-1914 by Kate Hill Book Resume:

The nineteenth century witnessed a flowering of museums in towns and cities across Britain. As well as providing a focus for collections of artifacts and a place of educational recreation, this work argues that municipal museums had a further, social role. In a situation of rapid urban growth, allied to social and cultural changes on a scale hitherto unknown, it was inevitable that traditional class and social hierarchies would come under enormous pressure. As a result, urban elites began to look to new methods of controlling and defining the urban environment. One such manifestation of this was the growth of the public museum. In earlier centuries museums were the preserve of learned and respectable minority, yet by the end of the nineteenth century one of the principal rationales of museums was the education, or 'improvement', of the working classes. In the control of museums too there was a corresponding shift away from private aristocratic leadership, toward a middle-class civic directorship and a growing professional body of curators. This work is in part a study of the creation of professional authority and autonomy by museum curators. More importantly though, it is about the stablization of middle-class identities by the end of the nineteenth century around new hierarchies of cultural capital. Public museums were an important factor in constructing the identity and authority of certain groups with access to, and control over, them. By examining urban identities through the cultural lens of the municipal museum, we are able to reconsider and better understand the subtleties of nineteenth-century urban society.

Class and Culture in Crime Fiction

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Class and Culture in Crime Fiction by Julie H. Kim Book Resume:

The crime fiction world of the late 1970s, with its increasingly diverse landscape, is a natural beginning for this collection of critical studies focusing on the intersections of class, culture and crime—each nuanced with shades of gender, ethnicity, race and politics. The ten new essays herein raise broad and complicated questions about the role of class and culture in transatlantic crime fiction beyond the Golden Age: How is “class” understood in detective fiction, other than as a socioeconomic marker? Can we distinguish between major British and American class concerns as they relate to crime? How politically informed is popular detective fiction in responding to economic crises in Scotland, Ireland, England and the United States? When issues of race and gender intersect with concerns of class and culture, does the crime writer privilege one or another factor? Do values and preoccupations of a primarily middle-class readership get reflected in popular detective fiction?

Class and the Making of American Literature

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Class and the Making of American Literature by Andrew Lawson Book Resume:

This book refocuses current understandings of American Literature from the revolutionary period to the present-day through an analytical accounting of class, reestablishing a foundation for discussions of class in American culture. American Studies scholars have explored the ways in which American society operates through inequality and modes of social control, focusing primarily on issues of status group identities involving race/ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and disability. The essays in this volume focus on both the historically changing experience of class and its continuing hold on American life. The collection visits popular as well as canonical literature, recognizing that class is constructed in and mediated by the affective and the sensational. It analyzes class division, class difference, and class identity in American culture, enabling readers to grasp why class matters, as well as the economic, social, and political matter of class. Redefining the field of American literary cultural studies and asking it to rethink its preoccupation with race and gender as primary determinants of identity, contributors explore the disciplining of the laboring body and of the emotions, the political role of the novel in contesting the limits of class power and authority, and the role of the modern consumer culture in both blurring and sharpening class divisions.

Class, Culture and Suburban Anxieties in the Victorian Era

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Class, Culture and Suburban Anxieties in the Victorian Era by Lara Baker Whelan Book Resume:

This book demonstrates how representations of the Victorian suburb in mid- to late-nineteenth century British writing occasioned a literary sub-genre unique to this period, one that attempted to reassure readers that the suburb was a place where outsiders could be controlled and where middle-class values could be enforced. Whelan explores the dissonance created by the differences between the suburban ideal and suburban realities, recognizing the persistence of that ideal in the face of abundant evidence that it was hardly ever realized. She discusses evidence from primary and secondary sources about perceptions and realities of suburban living, showing what it meant to live in a "real" Victorian suburb. The book also demonstrates how the suburban ideal (with its elements of privacy, cleanliness, rus in urbe, and respectability), in its relation to culturally embedded ideas about the Beautiful and Picturesque, gained such a strong foothold in the Victorian middle class that contemplating its failure caused intense anxiety. Whelan goes on to trace the ways in which this anxiety is represented in literature.

Faulkner and Material Culture

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Faulkner and Material Culture by Joseph R. Urgo Book Resume:

Essays by Charles S. Aiken, Katherine R. Henninger, T. J. Jackson Lears, Miles Orvell, Kevin Railey, D. Matthew Ramsey, Joseph R. Urgo, Jay Watson, and Patricia Yaeger. Photographs, lumber, airplanes, hand-hewn coffins--in every William Faulkner novel and short story worldly material abounds. The essays in Faulkner and Material Culture provide a fresh understanding of the things Faulkner brought from the world around him to the one he created. Charles S. Aiken surveys Faulkner's representation of terrain and concludes, contrary to established criticism, that to Faulkner, Yoknapatawpha was not a microcosm of the South but a very particular and quite specifically located place. Jay Watson works with literary theory, philosophy, the history of woodworking and furniture-making, and social and intellectual history to explore how Light in August is tied intimately to the region's logging and woodworking industries. Other essays in the volume include Kevin Railey's on the consumer goods that appear in Flags in the Dust . Miles Orvell discusses the Confederate Soldier monuments installed in small towns throughout the South and how such monuments enter Faulkner's work. Katherine Henninger analyzes Faulkner's fictional representation of photographs and the function of photography within his fiction, particularly in The Sound and the Fury, Light in August, and Absalom, Absalom!. Joseph R. Urgo is dean of the faculty at Hamilton College. Ann J. Abadie is associate director of the Center for the Study of Southern Culture at the University of Mississippi.

Culture and Identity

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Culture and Identity by Warren Kidd,Alison Teagle Book Resume:

An understanding of culture and identity is essential for new sociologists. This student-focused text explains the themes and theories behind these core ideas. With up-to-date discussion of 'chavs', masculinity and social networking, skills-based activities and practice exam questions, this is invaluable reading for anyone new to this topic.

Police Culture in a Changing World

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Police Culture in a Changing World by Bethan Loftus Book Resume:

This fascinating new title offers an ethnographical investigation of contemporary police culture based on extensive field work across a range of ranks and units in the UK's police force. By drawing on over 600 hours of direct observation of operational policing in urban and rural areas and interviews with over 60 officers, the author assesses what impact three decades of social, economic and political change have had on police culture. She offers new understandings of the policing of ethnicity, gender and sexuality, and the ways in which reform initiatives are accommodated and resisted within the police. The author also explores the attempts of one force to effect cultural change both to improve the working conditions of staff and to deliver a more effective and equitable service to all groups in society. Beginning with a review of the literature on police culture from 30 years ago, the author goes on to outline the new social, economic and political field of contemporary British policing. Taking this as a starting point, the remaining chapters present the main findings of the empirical research in what is a a truly comprehensive analysis of present day policing culture.

Languages of Class

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Languages of Class by Gareth Stedman Jones Book Resume:

This collection of essays by Gareth Stedman Jones proposes a different way of seeing both historians' analytical conceptions of 'class', and the actual manifestation of class in the history of English politics and English culture since the 1830s. As the progenitor of the first generally acknowledged working-class movement, the English working class provided the initial empirical basis for not only the original Marxist theory of modern industry and proletarian revolution, but also subsequent historians' reactions against, or adaptations of, the Marxist theory of class. In Languages of Class Gareth Stedman Jones draws a distinction between two conceptions of class: the everyday and commonplace perception of its pervasiveness in England, and the Marxist idea of its revolutionary significance. He proceeds to challenge the predominant conceptions of the meaning and development of 'class consciousness' by stressing the political and discursive conditions in which particular languages appeared and receded. Among the themes of individual essays in the book are a rethinking of 'the making of the English working class' and the phenomenon of Chartism, a novel exploration of the formation and components of 'working-class culture', and, in the light of these, a new approach to understanding the history of the Labour Party.