Civil Military Relations After The Nation State

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American Civil-Military Relations

American Civil-Military Relations [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0801895057
Author: ,
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press+ORM
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American Civil-Military Relations by , Book Resume:

American Civil-Military Relations offers the first comprehensive assessment of the subject since the publication of Samuel P. Huntington’s The Soldier and the State. Using this seminal work as a point of departure, experts in the fields of political science, history, and sociology ask what has been learned and what more needs to be investigated in the relationship between civilian and military sectors in the 21st century. Leading scholars—such as Richard Betts, Risa Brooks, James Burk, Michael Desch, Peter Feaver, Richard Kohn, Williamson Murray, and David Segal—discuss key issues, including: • changes in officer education since the end of the Cold War • shifting conceptions of military expertise in response to evolving operational and strategic requirements • increased military involvement in high-level politics • the domestic and international contexts of U.S. civil-military relations. The first section of the book provides contrasting perspectives of American civil-military relations within the last five decades. The next section addresses Huntington’s conception of societal and functional imperatives and their influence on the civil-military relationship. Following sections examine relationships between military and civilian leaders and describe the norms and practices that should guide those interactions. What is clear from the essays in this volume is that the line between civil and military expertise and responsibility is not that sharply drawn, and perhaps given the increasing complexity of international security issues, it should not be. When forming national security policy, the editors conclude, civilian and military leaders need to maintain a respectful and engaged dialogue. Essential reading for those interested in civil-military relations, U.S. politics, and national security policy.

Civil-Military Relations in Post-Communist Europe

Civil-Military Relations in Post-Communist Europe [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317970438
Author: Timothy Edmunds,Andrew Cottey,Anthony Forster
Publisher: Routledge
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Civil-Military Relations in Post-Communist Europe by Timothy Edmunds,Andrew Cottey,Anthony Forster Book Resume:

Fifteen years after the fall of communism, we are able to appraise the results of the multi-faceted postcommunist transition in Central and Eastern Europe with authority. This volume specifically addresses the fascinating area of Civil-Military relations throughout this transitional period. The countries of the region inherited a onerous legacy in this area: their armed forces were part of the communist party-state system and most were oriented towards Cold War missions; they were large in size and supported by high levels of defence spending; and they were based on universal male conscription. Central and eastern European states have thus faced a three fold civil-military reform challenge: establishing democratic and civilian control over their armed forces; implementing organisational reform to meet the security and foreign policy demands of the new era; and redefining military bases for legitimacy in society. This volume assesses the experiences of Poland, Hungary, Latvia, Romania, Croatia, Serbia-Montenegro, Ukraine and Russia in these areas. Collectively these countries illustrate the way in which the interaction of broadly similar postcommunist challenges and distinct national contexts have combined to produce a wide variety of different patterns of civil-military relations. This book was previously published as a special issue of European Security.

Civil-Military Relations in Post-Conflict Societies

Civil-Military Relations in Post-Conflict Societies [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317806786
Author: Orlando J. Pérez
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1056 KB
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Civil-Military Relations in Post-Conflict Societies by Orlando J. Pérez Book Resume:

Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Honduras are four Spanish speaking countries in Central America that possess uniformed military institutions. These four countries represent different approaches to reforms of civil-military relations, and embody varying degrees of success in both institutional democratization and the managing of security forces. In this book, Orlando J. Pérez expertly examines the competing theories of civil-military relations in Central America to advance our understanding of the origins, consequences and persistence of militarism in Latin America. Divided into four parts, Pérez begins by proposing a theoretical framework for analyzing civil-military relations, including an analysis of how U.S. foreign and military policy affects the establishment of stable civilian supremacy over the armed forces. Part Two examines the institutional and legal structures under which civil-military relations are carried out revealing in Part Three the reorientation of the missions and roles performed by the armed forces in each country. The concluding part analyzes the role beliefs of members of the military and public opinion about the armed forces in relation to other institutions. Combining both qualitative and quantitative data, Pérez bridges the gap between structural and cultural analyses for a more comprehensive understanding of the links between micro and macro level factors that influence civil-military relations and democratic governance.

Armed Servants

Armed Servants [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0674263359
Author: Peter D. Feaver
Publisher: Harvard University Press
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Armed Servants by Peter D. Feaver Book Resume:

How do civilians control the military? In the wake of September 11, the renewed presence of national security in everyday life has made this question all the more pressing. In this book, Peter Feaver proposes an ambitious new theory that treats civil-military relations as a principal-agent relationship, with the civilian executive monitoring the actions of military agents, the "armed servants" of the nation-state. Military obedience is not automatic but depends on strategic calculations of whether civilians will catch and punish misbehavior. This model challenges Samuel Huntington's professionalism-based model of civil-military relations, and provides an innovative way of making sense of the U.S. Cold War and post-Cold War experience--especially the distinctively stormy civil-military relations of the Clinton era. In the decade after the Cold War ended, civilians and the military had a variety of run-ins over whether and how to use military force. These episodes, as interpreted by agency theory, contradict the conventional wisdom that civil-military relations matter only if there is risk of a coup. On the contrary, military professionalism does not by itself ensure unchallenged civilian authority. As Feaver argues, agency theory offers the best foundation for thinking about relations between military and civilian leaders, now and in the future.

Globalization and National Identities

Globalization and National Identities [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0333985451
Author: P. Kennedy,C. Danks
Publisher: Springer
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Globalization and National Identities by P. Kennedy,C. Danks Book Resume:

Drawing on original research from social scientists working on twelve countries this book explores the key issues faced by nations and citizens as they struggle to rediscover, reaffirm or reconstruct their sense of national identities in the face of globalizing forces. Some nations and peoples experience the fragmentation of once certain identities as threatening and likely to generate political and social breakdown. Others encounter globalization as a challenge which brings uncertainties but also opportunities for adaptation, the evolution of hybrid identities or new forms of protest.

Civil–Military Entanglements

Civil–Military Entanglements [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1789201969
Author: Birgitte Refslund Sørensen†,Eyal Ben-Ari
Publisher: Berghahn Books
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Civil–Military Entanglements by Birgitte Refslund Sørensen†,Eyal Ben-Ari Book Resume:

Military-civilian encounters are multiple and diverse in our times. Contributors to this volume demonstrate how military and civilian domains are constituted through entanglements undermining the classic civil-military binary and manifest themselves in unexpected places and manners. Moreover, the essays trace out the ripples, reverberations and resonations of civil-military entanglements in areas not usually associated with such ties, but which are nevertheless real and significant for an understanding of the roles war, violence and the military play in shaping contemporary societies and the everyday life of its citizens.

Democratic Civil-Military Relations

Democratic Civil-Military Relations [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1136288848
Author: Sabine Mannitz
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 315 KB
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Read Count: 2009048

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Democratic Civil-Military Relations by Sabine Mannitz Book Resume:

This book examines the ways in which European democracies, including former communist states, are dealing with the new demands placed on their security policies since the cold war by transforming their military structures, and the effects this is having on the conceptualisation of soldiering. In the new security environment, democratic states have called upon their armed forces increasingly to fulfil unconventional tasks – partly civilian, partly humanitarian, and partly military – in most complex, multi-national missions. Not only have military structures been transformed to make them fit for these new types of deployments, but the new mission types highlight the necessity for democracies to come to terms with a new image and ethos of soldiering in defence of a transnational value community. Combining a qualitative comparison of twelve countries with an interdisciplinary methodology, this edited volume argues that the ongoing transformations of international politics make it necessary for democracies to address both internal and external factors as they shape their own civil-military relations. The issues discussed in this work are informed by Democratic Peace theory, which makes it possible to investigate relations within the state at the same time as analysing the international dimension. This approach gives the book a systematic theoretical framework which distinguishes it from the majority of existing literature on this subject. This book will be of much interest to students of civil-military relations, European politics, democratisation and post-communist transitions, and IR in general.

Soviet Defense Spending

Soviet Defense Spending [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 9780890968055
Author: Noel E. Firth,James H. Noren
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
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Read Count: 1465896

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Soviet Defense Spending by Noel E. Firth,James H. Noren Book Resume:

During the Cold War, when the United States' intelligence efforts were focused on the Soviet Union, one of the primary tasks of the Central Intelligence Agency was to estimate Soviet defense spending. In Soviet Defense Spending: A History of CIA Estimates, 1950-1990, Noel E. Firth and James H. Noren, who spent much of their long CIA careers estimating and studying Soviet defense spending, provide a closer look at those estimates and consider how and why they were made. In the process, the authors chronicle the development of a significant intelligence analytic capability. Firth and Noren also explain what the CIA has learned since the collapse of the Soviet Union about the USSR's actual military spending during the Cold War.

The Soldier and the State in South America

The Soldier and the State in South America [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0333977971
Author: P. Silva
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 1950 KB
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The Soldier and the State in South America by P. Silva Book Resume:

After a long era of military rule, the South American nations have been working on the construction of a new democratic order. This book provides a long-term historical assessment of the main features of civil-military relations in this region, from independence in the early nineteenth century to the current process of democratic consolidation, with special attention to the cases of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru.

The Soldier and the Citizen

The Soldier and the Citizen [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 9781563249792
Author: Monte R. Bullard
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
File Size: 753 KB
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The Soldier and the Citizen by Monte R. Bullard Book Resume:

"Soldier-citizens" describes the role of the Republic of China's military in the political socialization of Taiwan's citizens during the first two decades after the loss of the Chinese mainland. This book describes in detail how the military was used by the government to promote patriotic values throughout society, often going beyond what is considered part of its military mission.

Who Guards the Guardians and How

Who Guards the Guardians and How [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 9780292783409
Author: Thomas C. Bruneau,Scott D. Tollefson
Publisher: University of Texas Press
File Size: 728 KB
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Who Guards the Guardians and How by Thomas C. Bruneau,Scott D. Tollefson Book Resume:

The continued spread of democracy into the twenty-first century has seen two-thirds of the almost two hundred independent countries of the world adopting this model. In these newer democracies, one of the biggest challenges has been to establish the proper balance between the civilian and military sectors. A fundamental question of power must be addressed—who guards the guardians and how? In this volume of essays, contributors associated with the Center for Civil-Military Relations in Monterey, California, offer firsthand observations about civil-military relations in a broad range of regions including Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Despite diversity among the consolidating democracies of the world, their civil-military problems and solutions are similar—soldiers and statesmen must achieve a deeper understanding of one another, and be motivated to interact in a mutually beneficial way. The unifying theme of this collection is the creation and development of the institutions whereby democratically elected civilians achieve and exercise power over those who hold a monopoly on the use of force within a society, while ensuring that the state has sufficient and qualified armed forces to defend itself against internal and external aggressors. Although these essays address a wide variety of institutions and situations, they each stress a necessity for balance between democratic civilian control and military effectiveness.

Civil-Military Relations in Post-Conflict Societies

Civil-Military Relations in Post-Conflict Societies [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317806794
Author: Orlando J. Pérez
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 334 KB
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Read Count: 1629879

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Civil-Military Relations in Post-Conflict Societies by Orlando J. Pérez Book Resume:

Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Honduras are four Spanish speaking countries in Central America that possess uniformed military institutions. These four countries represent different approaches to reforms of civil-military relations, and embody varying degrees of success in both institutional democratization and the managing of security forces. In this book, Orlando J. Pérez expertly examines the competing theories of civil-military relations in Central America to advance our understanding of the origins, consequences and persistence of militarism in Latin America. Divided into four parts, Pérez begins by proposing a theoretical framework for analyzing civil-military relations, including an analysis of how U.S. foreign and military policy affects the establishment of stable civilian supremacy over the armed forces. Part Two examines the institutional and legal structures under which civil-military relations are carried out revealing in Part Three the reorientation of the missions and roles performed by the armed forces in each country. The concluding part analyzes the role beliefs of members of the military and public opinion about the armed forces in relation to other institutions. Combining both qualitative and quantitative data, Pérez bridges the gap between structural and cultural analyses for a more comprehensive understanding of the links between micro and macro level factors that influence civil-military relations and democratic governance.

Euro-Mediterranean Relations after the Arab Spring

Euro-Mediterranean Relations after the Arab Spring [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317139925
Author: Jakob Horst,Annette Jünemann,Delf Rothe
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 775 KB
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Read Count: 163640

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Euro-Mediterranean Relations after the Arab Spring by Jakob Horst,Annette Jünemann,Delf Rothe Book Resume:

The ’Arab Spring’ triggered paradigmatic shifts but, despite these changes, much in the Euro-Mediterranean region remains the same. Utilising ’Logics of Action’, an innovative theoretical framework designed to capture the complexity of political interaction in one of the fastest changing regions in the world, this book discusses developments in the region before and after the Arab Spring that can be characterised by a continuation of the norm. Expert contributors identify patterns of interaction between governmental institutions, economic entrepreneurs, religious groups and other diverse actors that withstood these historical changes and explore why these relationships have proved so robust. Connecting a unique sample of case studies on changing and persistent ’Logics of Action’ within the Euro-Mediterranean space this book provides a pivotal contribution to our understanding of political interaction between North Africa, the Middle East and the European Union. Offering a completely new perspective on the events of the ’Arab Spring’ it identifies something that seems paradoxical at first sight; persistence in times of radical change.

Democratization and Civilian Control in Asia

Democratization and Civilian Control in Asia [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1137319275
Author: A. Croissant,D. Kuehn,P. Lorenz,P. Chambers
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 1570 KB
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Democratization and Civilian Control in Asia by A. Croissant,D. Kuehn,P. Lorenz,P. Chambers Book Resume:

How can civilians in newly democratized countries ensure their control over the military? While establishing civilian control of the military is a necessary condition for a functioning democracy, it requires prudent strategic action on the part of the decision-makers to remove the military from positions of power and make it follow their orders.

The Rise And Fall of British Naval Mastery

The Rise And Fall of British Naval Mastery [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0141983833
Author: Paul Kennedy
Publisher: Penguin UK
File Size: 1116 KB
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The Rise And Fall of British Naval Mastery by Paul Kennedy Book Resume:

Paul Kennedy's classic naval history, now updated with a new introduction by the author This acclaimed book traces Britain's rise and fall as a sea power from the Tudors to the present day. Challenging the traditional view that the British are natural 'sons of the waves', he suggests instead that the country's fortunes as a significant maritime force have always been bound up with its economic growth. In doing so, he contributes significantly to the centuries-long debate between 'continental' and 'maritime' schools of strategy over Britain's policy in times of war. Setting British naval history within a framework of national, international, economic, political and strategic considerations, he offers a fresh approach to one of the central questions in British history. A new introduction extends his analysis into the twenty-first century and reflects on current American and Chinese ambitions for naval mastery. 'Excellent and stimulating' Correlli Barnett 'The first scholar to have set the sweep of British Naval history against the background of economic history' Michael Howard, Sunday Times 'By far the best study that has ever been done on the subject ... a sparkling and apt quotation on practically every page' Daniel A. Baugh, International History Review 'The best single-volume study of Britain and her naval past now available to us' Jon Sumida, Journal of Modern History

The Evolution of Civil-Military Relations in South East Europe

The Evolution of Civil-Military Relations in South East Europe [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 3790816566
Author: Philipp H. Fluri,Gustav E. Gustenau,Plamen I. Pantev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
File Size: 808 KB
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Read Count: 2374275

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The Evolution of Civil-Military Relations in South East Europe by Philipp H. Fluri,Gustav E. Gustenau,Plamen I. Pantev Book Resume:

This book, authored by a multi-national team, draws a complicated, yet logically evolving picture of the problems in the security sector reform field of South-East Europe, examining the post-totalitarian and post-conflict challenges to be faced.

Russian Civil-Military Relations

Russian Civil-Military Relations [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317060423
Author: Robert Brannon
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 918 KB
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Read Count: 9994482

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Russian Civil-Military Relations by Robert Brannon Book Resume:

Putin's style of leadership has transitioned into another era but there is much still inherited from the past. In the often anarchic environment of the 1990s, the nascent Russian Federation experienced misunderstandings and mis-steps in civil-military relations. Under Boris Yeltsin it has been questioned whether the military obeyed orders from civilian authorities or merely gave lip service to those it served to protect while implementing its own policies and courses of action. Robert Brannon sets forth the circumstances under which the military instrument of Russia's power and influence could be called upon to exert force. Deriving in part from its Soviet past, the author examines how Russia's military doctrine represents more than just a road map of how to fight the nation's wars; it also specifies threats to national interests, in this case the United States, NATO and international terrorism. Against this background of politics and power, the military's influence may reveal as much about politics as it does the military.

Businessmen in Arms

Businessmen in Arms [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1442254564
Author: Elke Grawert,Zeinab Abul-Magd
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
File Size: 534 KB
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Read Count: 9311589

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Businessmen in Arms by Elke Grawert,Zeinab Abul-Magd Book Resume:

This collection of essays from international experts examines the economic interests of armed actors ranging from military businesses in Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Jordan, Sudan, and Yemen to retired military officers’ economic endeavors and the web of funding of non-state armed groups in Syria and Libya.

Civil-Military Relations in Perspective

Civil-Military Relations in Perspective [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317165365
Author: Stephen J. Cimbala
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1881 KB
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Read Count: 6131515

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Civil-Military Relations in Perspective by Stephen J. Cimbala Book Resume:

The topic of civil-military relations has high significance for academics, for policy makers, for military commanders, and for serious students of public policy in democratic and other societies. The post-Cold War and post-9-11 worlds have thrown up traditional as well as new challenges to the effective management of armed forces and defense establishments. Further, the present century has seen a rising arc in the use of armed violence on the part of non-state actors, including terrorists, to considerable political effect. Civil-military relations in the United States, and their implications for US and allied security policies, is the focus of most discussions in this volume, but other contributions emphasize the comparative and cross-national dimensions of the relationship between the use or threat of force and public policy. Authors contributing to this study examine a wide range of issues, including: the contrast between theory and practice in civil-military relations; the role perceptions of military professionals across generations; the character of civil-military relations in authoritarian or other democratically-challenged political systems; the usefulness of business models in military management; the attributes of civil-military relations during unconventional conflicts; the experience of the all-volunteer force and its meaning for US civil-military relations; and other topics. Contributors include civilian academic and policy analysts as well as military officers with considerable academic expertise and experience with the subject matter at hand.

Organizing the 20th-Century World

Organizing the 20th-Century World [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1350134597
Author: Karen Gram-Skjoldager,Haakon Andreas Ikonomou,Torsten Kahlert
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
File Size: 1076 KB
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Read Count: 9448628

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Organizing the 20th-Century World by Karen Gram-Skjoldager,Haakon Andreas Ikonomou,Torsten Kahlert Book Resume:

International Organizations play a pivotal role on the modern global stage and have done, this book argues, since the beginning of the 20th century. This volume offers the first historical exploration into the formative years of international public administrations, covering the birth of the League of Nations and the emergence of the second generation that still shape international politics today such as the UN, NATO and OECD. Centring on Europe, where the multilaterization of international relations played out more intensely in the mid-20th century than in other parts of the world, it demonstrates a broad range of historiographical and methodological approaches to institutions in international history. The book argues that after several 'turns' (cultural, linguistic, material, transnational), international history is now better equipped to restate its core questions of policy and power with a view to their institutional dimensions. Making use of new approaches in the field, this book develops an understanding of the specific powers and roles of IO-administrations by delving into their institutional make-up.