An Epidemic Of Rumors

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An Epidemic of Rumors

An Epidemic of Rumors [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
File Size: 1414 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5648752


An Epidemic of Rumors by Book Resume:

In An Epidemic of Rumors, Jon D. Lee examines the human response to epidemics through the lens of the 2003 SARS epidemic. Societies usually respond to the eruption of disease by constructing stories, jokes, conspiracy theories, legends, and rumors, but these narratives are often more damaging than the diseases they reference. The information disseminated through them is often inaccurate, incorporating xenophobic explanations of the disease’s origins and questionable medical information about potential cures and treatment. Folklore studies brings important and useful perspectives to understanding cultural responses to the outbreak of disease. Through this etiological study Lee shows the similarities between the narratives of the SARS outbreak and the narratives of other contemporary disease outbreaks like AIDS and the H1N1 virus. His analysis suggests that these disease narratives do not spring up with new outbreaks or diseases but are in continuous circulation and are recycled opportunistically. Lee also explores whether this predictability of vernacular disease narratives presents the opportunity to create counter-narratives released systematically from the government or medical science to stymie the negative effects of the fearful rumors that so often inflame humanity. With potential for practical application to public health and health policy, An Epidemic of Rumors will be of interest to students and scholars of health, medicine, and folklore.

Learning from SARS

Learning from SARS [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher: National Academies Press
File Size: 1311 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6685557


Learning from SARS by Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats Book Resume:

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in late 2002 and 2003 challenged the global public health community to confront a novel epidemic that spread rapidly from its origins in southern China until it had reached more than 25 other countries within a matter of months. In addition to the number of patients infected with the SARS virus, the disease had profound economic and political repercussions in many of the affected regions. Recent reports of isolated new SARS cases and a fear that the disease could reemerge and spread have put public health officials on high alert for any indications of possible new outbreaks. This report examines the response to SARS by public health systems in individual countries, the biology of the SARS coronavirus and related coronaviruses in animals, the economic and political fallout of the SARS epidemic, quarantine law and other public health measures that apply to combating infectious diseases, and the role of international organizations and scientific cooperation in halting the spread of SARS. The report provides an illuminating survey of findings from the epidemic, along with an assessment of what might be needed in order to contain any future outbreaks of SARS or other emerging infections.

The Kiss of Death

The Kiss of Death [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Andrea Kitta
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
File Size: 1219 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5774565


The Kiss of Death by Andrea Kitta Book Resume:

Disease is a social issue, not just a medical issue. Using examples of specific legends and rumors, The Kiss of Death explores the beliefs and practices that permeate notions of contagion and contamination. Author Andrea Kitta offers new insight into the nature of vernacular conceptions of health and sickness and how medical and scientific institutions can use cultural literacy to better meet their communities’ needs. Using ethnographic, media, and narrative analysis, this book explores the vernacular explanatory models used in decisions concerning contagion to better understand the real fears, risks, concerns, and doubts of the public. Kitta explores immigration and patient zero, zombies and vampires, Slender Man, HPV, and the kiss of death legend, as well as systematic racism, homophobia, and misogyny in North American culture, to examine the nature of contagion and contamination. Conversations about health and risk cannot take place without considering positionality and intersectionality. In The Kiss of Death, Kitta isolates areas that require better communication and greater cultural sensitivity in the handling of infectious disease, public health, and other health-related disciplines and industries.

I Heard It Through the Grapevine

I Heard It Through the Grapevine [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Patricia A. Turner
Publisher: Univ of California Press
File Size: 1130 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 2805396


I Heard It Through the Grapevine by Patricia A. Turner Book Resume:

This book divides into two basic parts. In Chapters 1 and 2 I discuss historical examples of "rumor" discourse and suggest whey many blacks have--for good reason--channeled beliefs about race relations into familiar formulae, ones developed as early as the time of the first contact between sub-Saharan Africans and European white. Then in Chapters 3-7 it explores the continuation of these issues in late-twentieth-century African-American rumors and contemporary legends, using examples collected in the field. Because Turner was able to monitor these contemporary legends as they unfolded and played themselves out, rigorous analysis was possible. What follows, then, is an examination of the themes common to these contemporary items and related historical ones, and an explanation for their persistence. Concerns about conspiracy, contamination, cannibalism, and castration--perceived threats to individual black bodies, which are then translated into animosity toward the race as a whole--run through nearly four hundred years of black contemporary legend material and prove remarkable tenacious.

Empires of Panic

Empires of Panic [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Robert Peckham
Publisher: Hong Kong University Press
File Size: 1685 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6484231


Empires of Panic by Robert Peckham Book Resume:

Empires of Panic is the first book to explore how panics have been historically produced, defined, and managed across different colonial, imperial, and post-imperial settings—from early nineteenth-century East Asia to twenty-first-century America. Contributors consider panic in relation to colonial anxieties, rumors, indigenous resistance, and crises, particularly in relation to epidemic disease. How did Western government agencies, policymakers, planners, and other authorities understand, deal with, and neutralize panics? What role did evolving technologies of communication play in the amplification of local panics into global events? Engaging with these questions, the book challenges conventional histories to show how intensifying processes of intelligence gathering did not consolidate empire, but rather served to produce critical uncertainties—the uneven terrain of imperial panic. Robert Peckham is associate professor in the Department of History and co-director of the Centre for the Humanities and Medicine at the University of Hong Kong. "Charting the relays of rumor and knowledge that stoke colonial fears of disease, disorder, and disaster, Empires of Panic offers timely and cautionary insight into how viscerally epidemics inflame imperial anxieties, and how words and their communication over new technologies accelerate panic, rally government intervention, and unsettle and entrench the exercise of global power. Relevant a century ago and even more so today." — Nayan Shah, University of Southern California; author ofContagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco's Chinatown "Empires generated anxiety as much as ambition. This fine study focuses on anxieties generated by disease. It is the first book of its kind to track shifting forms of panic through different geopolitical regimes and imperial formations over the course of two centuries. Working across medical and imperial histories, it is a major contribution to both." — Andrew S. Thompson, University of Exeter; author of Empire and Globalisation: Networks of People, Goods and Capital in the British World, c. 1850–1914(with Gary B. Magee)

The End of Epidemics

The End of Epidemics [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Dr. Jonathan D. Quick,Bronwyn Fryer
Publisher: St. Martin\'s Press
File Size: 762 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4586976


The End of Epidemics by Dr. Jonathan D. Quick,Bronwyn Fryer Book Resume:

“Jonathan Quick offers a compelling and intensely readable plan to prevent worldwide infectious outbreaks. The End of Epidemics is essential reading for those who might be affected by a future pandemic—that is, just about everyone.”—Sandeep Jauhar, bestselling author of Heart: A History The 2020 outbreak of coronavirus has terrified the world--and revealed how unprepared we are for the next outbreak of an infectious disease. Somewhere in nature, a killer virus is boiling up in the bloodstream of a bird, bat, monkey, or pig, preparing to jump to a human being. This not-yet-detected germ has the potential to wipe out millions of lives over a matter of weeks or months. That risk makes the threat posed by ISIS, a ground war, a massive climate event, or even the dropping of a nuclear bomb on a major city pale in comparison. In The End of Epidemics, Duke Global Health Institute faculty member and past Chair of the Global Health Council Dr. Jonathan D. Quick examines the eradication of smallpox and devastating effects of influenza, AIDS, SARS, Ebola, and other viral diseases . Analyzing local and global efforts to contain these diseases and citing firsthand accounts of failure and success, Dr. Quick proposes a new set of actions which he has coined "The Power of Seven," to end epidemics before they can begin. These actions include: - Spending prudently to prevent disease before an epidemic strikes, rather than spending too little, too late - Ensuring prompt, open, and accurate communication between nations and aid agencies, instead of secrecy and territorial disputes - Fighting disease and preventing panic with innovation and good science Practical and urgent, The End of Epidemics is crucial reading for citizens, health professionals, and policy makers alike. “Dr. Quick’s urgent message makes one hope that this book will reach a huge audience and that its exhortations will be acted on everywhere.”—The Wall Street Journal

COVID-19 in International Media

COVID-19 in International Media [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: John C. Pollock,Douglas A. Vakoch
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1410 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 1994774


COVID-19 in International Media by John C. Pollock,Douglas A. Vakoch Book Resume:

Covid-19 in International Media: Global Pandemic Responses is one of the first books uniting an international team of scholars to investigate how media address critical social, political, and health issues connected to the 2020-21 COVID-19 outbreak. The book evaluates unique civic challenges, responsibilities, and opportunities for media worldwide, exploring pandemic social norms that media promote or discourage, and how media serve as instruments of social control and resistance, or of cooperation and representation. These chapters raise significant questions about the roles mainstream or citizen journalists or netizens play or ought to play, enlightening audiences successfully about scientific information on COVID-19 in a pandemic that magnifies social inequality and unequal access to health care, challenging popular beliefs about health and disease prevention and the role of government while the entire world pays close attention. This book will be of interest to students and faculty of communication studies and journalism, departments of public health, sociology, and social marketing.

Handbook of Research on Historical Pandemic Analysis and the Social Implications of COVID-19

Handbook of Research on Historical Pandemic Analysis and the Social Implications of COVID-19 [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Cortijo Ocaña, Antonio,Martines, Vicent
Publisher: IGI Global
File Size: 1572 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7953396


Handbook of Research on Historical Pandemic Analysis and the Social Implications of COVID-19 by Cortijo Ocaña, Antonio,Martines, Vicent Book Resume:

The current health situation has been described as chaotic and devastating. Humanity’s trust in the future and in its human capacity to overcome a disaster of such magnitude is even starting to wither away. If science still lacks a response to the pandemic, can the humanities offer something to cope with this situation? The world can adopt a historical perspective and realize that this is not the first time a global pandemic has struck. Issues including illness, suffering, endurance, resilience, human survival, etc. have been dealt with by literature, philosophy, psychology, and sociology throughout the ages and should be explored once again in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Handbook of Research on Historical Pandemic Analysis and the Social Implications of COVID-19 explores the issue of disease from a variety of philosophical, legal, historical, and social perspectives to offer both comprehension and consolation to the human psyche. This group of scholars within the fields of education, psychology, linguistics, history, and philosophy provides a comprehensive view of the humanities as it relates to the pandemic within the frame of human reaction to pain and calamity. This book also looks at the impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had on society in a multidisciplinary capacity that examines its effects in education, government, business, and more. Covering topics such as public health legislation, sociology, impacts on women, and population genetics, this book is essential for sociologists, psychologists, communications experts, historians, researchers, students, and academicians.

On Rumors

On Rumors [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Cass R. Sunstein
Publisher: Princeton University Press
File Size: 698 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 740687


On Rumors by Cass R. Sunstein Book Resume:

Many of us are being misled. Claiming to know dark secrets about public officials, hidden causes of the current economic situation, and nefarious plans and plots, those who spread rumors know precisely what they are doing. And in the era of social media and the Internet, they know a lot about how to manipulate the mechanics of false rumors—social cascades, group polarization, and biased assimilation. They also know that the presumed correctives—publishing balanced information, issuing corrections, and trusting the marketplace of ideas—do not always work. All of us are vulnerable. In On Rumors, Cass Sunstein uses examples from the real world and from behavioral studies to explain why certain rumors spread like wildfire, what their consequences are, and what we can do to avoid being misled. In a new afterword, he revisits his arguments in light of his time working in the Obama administration.

Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 9)

Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 9) [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Dean T. Jamison,Hellen Gelband,Susan Horton,Prabhat Jha,Charles N. Mock,Rachel Nugent
Publisher: World Bank Publications
File Size: 1955 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 3090552


Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 9) by Dean T. Jamison,Hellen Gelband,Susan Horton,Prabhat Jha,Charles N. Mock,Rachel Nugent Book Resume:

As the culminating volume in the DCP3 series, volume 9 will provide an overview of DCP3 findings and methods, a summary of messages and substantive lessons to be taken from DCP3, and a further discussion of cross-cutting and synthesizing topics across the first eight volumes. The introductory chapters (1-3) in this volume take as their starting point the elements of the Essential Packages presented in the overview chapters of each volume. First, the chapter on intersectoral policy priorities for health includes fiscal and intersectoral policies and assembles a subset of the population policies and applies strict criteria for a low-income setting in order to propose a "highest-priority" essential package. Second, the chapter on packages of care and delivery platforms for universal health coverage (UHC) includes health sector interventions, primarily clinical and public health services, and uses the same approach to propose a highest priority package of interventions and policies that meet similar criteria, provides cost estimates, and describes a pathway to UHC.

Applications of Social Media and Social Network Analysis

Applications of Social Media and Social Network Analysis [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Przemysław Kazienko,Nitesh Chawla
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 334 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 3749354


Applications of Social Media and Social Network Analysis by Przemysław Kazienko,Nitesh Chawla Book Resume:

This collection of contributed chapters demonstrates a wide range of applications within two overlapping research domains: social media analysis and social network analysis. Various methodologies were utilized in the twelve individual chapters including static, dynamic and real-time approaches to graph, textual and multimedia data analysis. The topics apply to reputation computation, emotion detection, topic evolution, rumor propagation, evaluation of textual opinions, friend ranking, analysis of public transportation networks, diffusion in dynamic networks, analysis of contributors to communities of open source software developers, biometric template generation as well as analysis of user behavior within heterogeneous environments of cultural educational centers. Addressing these challenging applications is what makes this edited volume of interest to researchers and students focused on social media and social network analysis.

Coronavirus Disease - COVID-19

Coronavirus Disease - COVID-19 [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Nima Rezaei
Publisher: Springer Nature
File Size: 1564 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 3341675


Coronavirus Disease - COVID-19 by Nima Rezaei Book Resume:

In December 2019, the world witnessed the occurrence of a new coronavirus to humanity. The disease spread quickly and became known as a pandemic globally, affecting both society and the health care system, both the elderly and young groups of people, and both the men’s and women’s groups. It was a universal challenge that immediately caused a surge in scientific research. Be a part of a world rising in fighting against the pandemic, the Coronavirus Disease - COVID-19 was depicted in the early days of the pandemic, but updated by more than 200 scientists and clinicians to include many facets of this new infectious pandemic, including i, characteristics, ecology, and evolution of coronaviruses; ii, epidemiology, genetics, and pathogenesis (immune responses and oxidative stress) of the disease; iii, diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical manifestations of the disease in pediatrics, geriatrics, pregnant women, and neonates; iv, challenges of co-occurring the disease with tropical infections, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and cancer and to the settings of dentistry, hematology, ophthalmology, and pharmacy; v, transmission, prevention, and potential treatments, ranging from supportive ventilator support and nutrition therapy to potential virus- and host-based therapies, immune-based therapies, photobiomodulation, antiviral photodynamic therapy, and vaccines; vi, the resulting consequences on social lives, mental health, education, tourism industry and economy; and vii, multimodal approaches to solve the problem by bioinformatic methods, innovation and ingenuity, globalization, social and scientific networking, interdisciplinary approaches, and art integration. We are approaching December 2020 and the still presence of COVID-19, asking us to call it COVID (without 19).

Big Data Support of Urban Planning and Management

Big Data Support of Urban Planning and Management [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Zhenjiang Shen,Miaoyi Li
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 1316 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6573507


Big Data Support of Urban Planning and Management by Zhenjiang Shen,Miaoyi Li Book Resume:

In the era of big data, this book explores the new challenges of urban-rural planning and management from a practical perspective based on a multidisciplinary project. Researchers as contributors to this book have accomplished their projects by using big data and relevant data mining technologies for investigating the possibilities of big data, such as that obtained through cell phones, social network systems and smart cards instead of conventional survey data for urban planning support. This book showcases active researchers who share their experiences and ideas on human mobility, accessibility and recognition of places, connectivity of transportation and urban structure in order to provide effective analytic and forecasting tools for smart city planning and design solutions in China.

Earthquake Engineering Handbook

Earthquake Engineering Handbook [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Charles Scawthorn,Wai-Fah Chen
Publisher: CRC Press
File Size: 451 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6325529


Earthquake Engineering Handbook by Charles Scawthorn,Wai-Fah Chen Book Resume:

Earthquakes are nearly unique among natural phenomena - they affect virtually everything within a region, from massive buildings and bridges, down to the furnishings within a home. Successful earthquake engineering therefore requires a broad background in subjects, ranging from the geologic causes and effects of earthquakes to understanding the imp

Folklore, Gender, and AIDS in Malawi

Folklore, Gender, and AIDS in Malawi [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: A. Wilson
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 961 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6130323


Folklore, Gender, and AIDS in Malawi by A. Wilson Book Resume:

Informal folk narrative genres such as gossip, advice, rumor, and urban legends provide a unique lens through which to discern popular formations of gender conflict and AIDS beliefs. This is the first book on AIDS and gender in Africa to draw primarily on such narratives. By exploring tales of love medicine, gossip about romantic rivalries, rumors of mysterious new diseases, marital advice, and stories of rape, among others, it provides rich, personally grounded insights into the everyday struggles of people living in an era marked by social upheaval.

The Psychology of Pandemics

The Psychology of Pandemics [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Steven Taylor
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
File Size: 1442 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6256962


The Psychology of Pandemics by Steven Taylor Book Resume:

Pandemics are large-scale epidemics that spread throughout the world. Virologists predict that the next pandemic could occur in the coming years, probably from some form of influenza, with potentially devastating consequences. Vaccinations, if available, and behavioral methods are vital for stemming the spread of infection. However, remarkably little attention has been devoted to the psychological factors that influence the spread of pandemic infection and the associated emotional distress and social disruption. Psychological factors are important for many reasons. They play a role in nonadherence to vaccination and hygiene programs, and play an important role in how people cope with the threat of infection and associated losses. Psychological factors are important for understanding and managing societal problems associated with pandemics, such as the spreading of excessive fear, stigmatization, and xenophobia that occur when people are threatened with infection. This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of the psychology of pandemics. It describes the psychological reactions to pandemics, including maladaptive behaviors, emotions, and defensive reactions, and reviews the psychological vulnerability factors that contribute to the spreading of disease and distress. It also considers empirically supported methods for addressing these problems, and outlines the implications for public health planning.

Cultural Politics of Hygiene in India, 1890-1940

Cultural Politics of Hygiene in India, 1890-1940 [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Srirupa Prasad
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 1238 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7495573


Cultural Politics of Hygiene in India, 1890-1940 by Srirupa Prasad Book Resume:

This book examines genealogies of contagion in between contagion as microbe and contagion as affect. It analyzes how and why hygiene became authoritative and succeeded in becoming a part of the broader social and cultural vocabulary within the colonialist, anti-colonial, as well as modernist discourses.

A Rumor of War

A Rumor of War [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Philip Caputo
Publisher: Holt Paperbacks
File Size: 835 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4828836


A Rumor of War by Philip Caputo Book Resume:

The 40th anniversary edition of the classic Vietnam memoir—featured in the PBS documentary series The Vietnam War by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick—with a new foreword by Kevin Powers In March of 1965, Lieutenant Philip J. Caputo landed at Danang with the first ground combat unit deployed to Vietnam. Sixteen months later, having served on the line in one of modern history’s ugliest wars, he returned home—physically whole but emotionally wasted, his youthful idealism forever gone. A Rumor of War is far more than one soldier’s story. Upon its publication in 1977, it shattered America’s indifference to the fate of the men sent to fight in the jungles of Vietnam. In the years since then, it has become not only a basic text on the Vietnam War but also a renowned classic in the literature of wars throughout history and, as the author writes, of "the things men do in war and the things war does to them." "Heartbreaking, terrifying, and enraging. It belongs to the literature of men at war." —Los Angeles Times Book Review

Rumor Mills

Rumor Mills [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Veronique Campion-Vincent
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 805 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 5893443


Rumor Mills by Veronique Campion-Vincent Book Resume:

The goal of this volume is to explore the social and political dynamics of rumor and the related concept of urban or contemporary legend. These forms of communication often appear in tandem with social problems, including riots, racial or political violence, and social and economic upheavals. The volume emphasizes the connection of rumor to a set of social concerns from government corruption and corporate scandal, to racial, religious, and other prejudices. Central to the dialogue are issues of truth, belief, history, public policy, and evidence.Rumor has been recognized as one of the most important contributing factors to violence and discrimination. Yet, despite its significance in exacerbating social discord and mistrust, little systematic scholarly attention has been paid to the political origins and consequences of rumor. Rumor is defined as a proposition for belief that is not backed by secure standards of evidence. Rumor can be traditional or not, and can be expressed as a simple claim of fact. In both instances groups of claim-makers, operating out of their own interests and with a set of resources, attempt to depict reality, and if possible, impact the future.The need for this book is underscored by changing patterns of technology. What in the past was grounded in face- to-face interaction is now often found on the Internet, which is a major source of rumor. An appreciation of how new electronic forms of communication affect communal belief is essential for explicating rumor dynamics. The volume is comprehensive. Essays cover race and ethnicity, migration and globalization, corporate malfeasance, and state and government corruption. While editors and contributors well appreciate the dynamic nature of rumors and legends, the high quality of the effort make it evident that the issues that are raised and reoccur will serve to channel and inspire research in this major field of communications research for years to come.

Modeling the Interplay Between Human Behavior and the Spread of Infectious Diseases

Modeling the Interplay Between Human Behavior and the Spread of Infectious Diseases [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Piero Manfredi,Alberto D'Onofrio
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
File Size: 757 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 1491933


Modeling the Interplay Between Human Behavior and the Spread of Infectious Diseases by Piero Manfredi,Alberto D'Onofrio Book Resume:

This volume summarizes the state-of-the-art in the fast growing research area of modeling the influence of information-driven human behavior on the spread and control of infectious diseases. In particular, it features the two main and inter-related “core” topics: behavioral changes in response to global threats, for example, pandemic influenza, and the pseudo-rational opposition to vaccines. In order to make realistic predictions, modelers need to go beyond classical mathematical epidemiology to take these dynamic effects into account. With contributions from experts in this field, the book fills a void in the literature. It goes beyond classical texts, yet preserves the rationale of many of them by sticking to the underlying biology without compromising on scientific rigor. Epidemiologists, theoretical biologists, biophysicists, applied mathematicians, and PhD students will benefit from this book. However, it is also written for Public Health professionals interested in understanding models, and to advanced undergraduate students, since it only requires a working knowledge of mathematical epidemiology.

The Rules of Contagion

The Rules of Contagion [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Adam Kucharski
Publisher: Basic Books
File Size: 1659 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7102163


The Rules of Contagion by Adam Kucharski Book Resume:

One of the Best Books of 2020 — Financial Times One of the "Most 2020 Books of 2020" — Washington Post One of the Best Science Books of 2020 — The Times of London One of the Best Science Books of 2020 — The Guardian From ideas and infections to financial crises and fake news, an "utterly timely" look at why the science of outbreaks is the science of modern life These days, whenever anything spreads, whether it's a YouTube fad or a political rumor, we say it went viral. But how does virality actually work? In The Rules of Contagion, epidemiologist Adam Kucharski explores topics including gun violence, online manipulation, and, of course, outbreaks of disease to show how much we get wrong about contagion, and how astonishing the real science is. Why did the president retweet a Mussolini quote as his own? Why do financial bubbles take off so quickly? Why are disinformation campaigns so effective? And what makes the emergence of new illnesses -- such as MERS, SARS, or the coronavirus disease COVID-19 -- so challenging? By uncovering the crucial factors driving outbreaks, we can see how things really spread -- and what we can do about it. Whether you are an author seeking an audience, a defender of truth, or simply someone interested in human social behavior, The Rules of Contagion is an essential guide to modern life.

Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management

Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Jiuping Xu,Virgílio António Cruz-Machado,Benjamin Lev,Stefan Nickel
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 1778 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4274932


Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management by Jiuping Xu,Virgílio António Cruz-Machado,Benjamin Lev,Stefan Nickel Book Resume:

This is the Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management (ICMSEM) held from July 25 to 27, 2014 at Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal and organized by International Society of Management Science and Engineering Management (ISMSEM), Sichuan University (Chengdu, China) and Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Lisbon, Portugal). The goals of the conference are to foster international research collaborations in Management Science and Engineering Management as well as to provide a forum to present current findings. A total number of 138 papers from 14 countries are selected for the proceedings by the conference scientific committee through rigorous referee review. The selected papers in the first volume are focused on Intelligent System and Management Science covering areas of Intelligent Systems, Decision Support Systems, Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management.

Communicating during Humanitarian Medical Crises

Communicating during Humanitarian Medical Crises [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Marouf Hasian, Jr.
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
File Size: 701 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7023679


Communicating during Humanitarian Medical Crises by Marouf Hasian, Jr. Book Resume:

This book uses historical and contemporary cases to underscore the promise and perils of medical activism or silence during humanitarian crises. The author argues that both totalitarian and democratic nations have threatened the lives of Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontières workers when they contributed to the weaponization of medical facilities.

Best Laid Plans: The Tyranny of Unintended Consequences and How to Avoid Them

Best Laid Plans: The Tyranny of Unintended Consequences and How to Avoid Them [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: William A. Sherden
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
File Size: 1106 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 916445


Best Laid Plans: The Tyranny of Unintended Consequences and How to Avoid Them by William A. Sherden Book Resume:

This intriguing and informative probe into the dynamics of unintended consequences reveal the real reasons our best laid plans often go askew in our political, business, and personal lives. • 60 case studies clearly illustrate how unintended consequences occurred in current and historical events • Various charts and figures clarify key points and information • A bibliography contains 250 books and articles referenced in the book

The Socioeconomics of Nationalism in China

The Socioeconomics of Nationalism in China [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: C. Simon Fan
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
File Size: 1064 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 9386259


The Socioeconomics of Nationalism in China by C. Simon Fan Book Resume:

This book analyzes Chinese nationalism from the perspective of social economics. It posits a conceptual framework in which national status is treated as a "luxury" while material consumption is considered as a "necessity" in people’s preferences, which implies that popular nationalism tends to increase with economic development. The book extensively uses the tools of game theory and behavioral economics to analyze inter-ethnical and international conflicts in historical and contemporary China. The author’s economic approach to the subject of nationalism brings fresh and critical insights into the Chinese historical events and relations with foreign countries. For example, it helps resolve the following puzzles: Why did most Chinese support an ethnic minority, the Manchus, to be their ruler after the collapse of the Ming dynasty? In the Boxer Rebellion, why did the Qing dynasty declare war against more than eight foreign powers when it knew well that any of the countries could defeat China easily? What are the fundamental causes of the 1962 Sino-Indian War and the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War? Who is responsible for the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade? This book attempts to answer the questions based on the theories of social economics and rational choice, which will interest those researching on nationalism, China studies, international relations, history and political economy.

A Companion to African History

A Companion to African History [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: William H. Worger,Charles Ambler,Nwando Achebe
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
File Size: 554 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7044041


A Companion to African History by William H. Worger,Charles Ambler,Nwando Achebe Book Resume:

Covers the history of the entire African continent, from prehistory to the present day A Companion to African History embraces the diverse regions, subject matter, and disciplines of the African continent, while also providing chronological and geographical coverage of basic historical developments. Two dozen essays by leading international scholars explore the challenges facing this relatively new field of historical enquiry and present the dynamic ways in which historians and scholars from other fields such as archaeology, anthropology, political science, and economics are forging new directions in thinking and research. Comprised of six parts, the book begins with thematic approaches to African history—exploring the environment, gender and family, medical practices, and more. Section two covers Africa’s early history and its pre-colonial past—early human adaptation, the emergence of kingdoms, royal power, and warring states. The third section looks at the era of the slave trade and European expansion. Part four examines the process of conquest—the discovery of diamonds and gold, military and social response, and more. Colonialism is discussed in the sixth section, with chapters on the economy transformed due to the development of agriculture and mining industries. The last section studies the continent from post World War II all the way up to modern times. Aims at capturing the enthusiasms of practicing historians, and encouraging similar passion in a new generation of scholars Emphasizes linkages within Africa as well as between the continent and other parts of the world All chapters include significant historiographical content and suggestions for further reading Written by a global team of writers with unique backgrounds and views Features case studies with illustrative examples In a field traditionally marked by narrow specialisms, A Companion to African History is an ideal book for advanced students, researchers, historians, and scholars looking for a broad yet unique overview of African history as a whole.

A Companion to the Anthropology of Environmental Health

A Companion to the Anthropology of Environmental Health [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Merrill Singer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
File Size: 861 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 8790803


A Companion to the Anthropology of Environmental Health by Merrill Singer Book Resume:

A Companion to the Anthropology of Environmental Health presents a collection of readings that utilize a medical anthropological approach to explore the interface of humans and the environment in the shaping of health and illness around the world. Features the latest ethnographic research from around the world related to the multiple impacts of the environment on health and of societies on their environments Includes contributions from international medical anthropologists, conservationists, environmental experts, public health professionals, health clinicians, and other social scientists Analyzes the conditions of cultural and social transformation that accompany environmental and ecological impacts in all areas of the world Offers critical perspectives on theoretical and methodological advancements in the anthropology of environmental health, along with future directions in the field

Stochastic Processes in Epidemic Theory

Stochastic Processes in Epidemic Theory [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Jean-Pierre Gabriel,Claude Lefevre,Philippe Picard
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 761 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 3929116


Stochastic Processes in Epidemic Theory by Jean-Pierre Gabriel,Claude Lefevre,Philippe Picard Book Resume:

This collection of papers gives a representative cross-selectional view of recent developments in the field. After a survey paper by C. Lefèvre, 17 other research papers look at stochastic modeling of epidemics, both from a theoretical and a statistical point of view. Some look more specifically at a particular disease such as AIDS, malaria, schistosomiasis and diabetes.

Antisemitism in Galicia

Antisemitism in Galicia [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Tim Buchen
Publisher: Berghahn Books
File Size: 449 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 8010676


Antisemitism in Galicia by Tim Buchen Book Resume:

In the last third of the nineteenth century, the discourse on the “Jewish question” in the Habsburg crownlands of Galicia changed fundamentally, as clerical and populist politicians emerged to denounce the Jewish assimilation and citizenship. This pioneering study investigates the interaction of agitation, violence, and politics against Jews on the periphery of the Danube monarchy. In its comprehensive analysis of the functions and limitations of propaganda, rumors, and mass media, it shows just how significant antisemitism was to the politics of coexistence among Christians and Jews on the eve of the Great War.

Intelligent Information and Database Systems

Intelligent Information and Database Systems [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Ngoc Thanh Nguyen,Satoshi Tojo,Le Minh Nguyen,Bogdan Trawiński
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 1013 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 977495


Intelligent Information and Database Systems by Ngoc Thanh Nguyen,Satoshi Tojo,Le Minh Nguyen,Bogdan Trawiński Book Resume:

The two-volume set LNAI 10191 and 10192 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th Asian Conference on Intelligent Information and Database Systems, ACIIDS 2017, held in Kanazawa, Japan, in April 2017. The total of 152 full papers accepted for publication in these proceedings was carefully reviewed and selected from 420 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: Knowledge Engineering and Semantic Web; Social Networks and Recommender Systems; Text Processing and Information Retrieval; Intelligent Database Systems; Intelligent Information Systems; Decision Support and Control Systems; Machine Learning and Data Mining; Computer Vision Techniques; Advanced Data Mining Techniques and Applications; Intelligent and Context Systems; Multiple Model Approach to Machine Learning; Applications of Data Science; Artificial Intelligence Applications for E-services; Automated Reasoning and Proving Techniques with Applications in Intelligent Systems; Collective Intelligence for Service Innovation, Technology Opportunity, E-Learning and Fuzzy Intelligent Systems; Intelligent Computer Vision Systems and Applications; Intelligent Data Analysis, Applications and Technologies for Internet of Things; Intelligent Algorithms and Brain Functions; Intelligent Systems and Algorithms in Information Sciences; IT in Biomedicine; Intelligent Technologies in the Smart Cities in the 21st Century; Analysis of Image, Video and Motion Data in Life Sciences; Modern Applications of Machine Learning for Actionable Knowledge Extraction; Mathematics of Decision Sciences and Information Science; Scalable Data Analysis in Bioinformatics and Biomedical Informatics; and Technological Perspective of Agile Transformation in IT organizations.

The Complete Works of William Walker Atkinson: The Power of Concentration, Mind Power, Raja Yoga, The Secret of Success, Self-Healing by Thought Force and much more

The Complete Works of William Walker Atkinson: The Power of Concentration, Mind Power, Raja Yoga, The Secret of Success, Self-Healing by Thought Force and much more [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: William Walker Atkinson
Publisher: e-artnow
File Size: 1319 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 9810223


The Complete Works of William Walker Atkinson: The Power of Concentration, Mind Power, Raja Yoga, The Secret of Success, Self-Healing by Thought Force and much more by William Walker Atkinson Book Resume:

This carefully edited collection has been designed and formatted to the highest digital standards and adjusted for readability on all devices. The Art of Logical Thinking The Crucible of Modern Thought Dynamic Thought How to Read Human Nature The Inner Consciousness The Law of the New Thought The Mastery of Being Memory Culture Memory: How to Develop, Train and Use It The Art of Expression and The Principles of Discourse Mental Fascination Mind and Body; or Mental States and Physical Conditions Mind Power: The Secret of Mental Magic The New Psychology Its Message, Principles and Practice New Thought Nuggets of the New Thought Practical Mental Influence Practical Mind-Reading Practical Psychomancy and Crystal Gazing The Psychology of Salesmanship Reincarnation and the Law of Karma The Secret of Mental Magic The Secret of Success Self-Healing by Thought Force The Subconscious and the Superconscious Planes of Mind Suggestion and Auto-Suggestion Telepathy: Its Theory, Facts, and Proof Thought-Culture - Practical Mental Training Thought-Force in Business and Everyday Life Thought Vibration or the Law of Attraction in the Thought World Your Mind and How to Use It The Hindu-Yogi Science Of Breath Lessons in Yogi Philosophy and Oriental Occultism Advanced Course in Yogi Philosophy and Oriental Occultism Hatha Yoga The Science of Psychic Healing Raja Yoga or Mental Development Gnani Yoga The Inner Teachings of the Philosophies and Religions of India Mystic Christianity The Life Beyond Death The Practical Water Cure The Spirit of the Upanishads or the Aphorisms of the Wise Bhagavad Gita The Art and Science of Personal Magnetism Master Mind Mental Therapeutics The Power of Concentration Genuine Mediumship Clairvoyance and Occult Powers The Human Aura The Secret Doctrines of the Rosicrucians Personal Power The Arcane Teachings The Arcane Formulas, or Mental Alchemy Vril, or Vital Magnet

Rumors and Rumor Control

Rumors and Rumor Control [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Allan J. Kimmel
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 333 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7194262


Rumors and Rumor Control by Allan J. Kimmel Book Resume:

This book offers a thorough examination of rumors and proposes strategies for organizations to use in combatting rumors that occur both internally and externally. Author Allan J. Kimmel explores the rumor phenomenon and distinguishes it as a distinct form of communication. He looks at psychological and social processes underlying rumor transmission to understand the circumstances under which people invent and circulate rumors. In addition, he examines how rumors are spread--both interpersonally and through mediated processes--and offers strategies for organizations to respond to rumors when they surface and methods for preventing their occurrence. Numerous examples are provided of actual rumor cases for which managers either successfully or unsuccessfully coped, including such companies as Procter & Gamble, McDonald's, Snapple, Pepsi-Cola, and Gerber. Intended to serve as a comprehensive compendium of strategies, this book was written with two objectives in mind. The first is to shed light on the often perplexing phenomenon of rumor by integrating disparate approaches from the behavioral sciences, marketing, and communication fields. The second is to offer a blueprint for going about the formidable tasks of attempting to prevent and neutralize rumors in business contexts. With these dual goals in mind--one theoretical, the other applied--this book will be of equal interest to both academics and managers in a wide range of professional contexts. In addition, it will guide organizational and marketing managers in their efforts to combat the potentially destructive consequences of rumors.

Outbreak Culture

Outbreak Culture [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Pardis Sabeti
Publisher: Harvard University Press
File Size: 389 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 8140460


Outbreak Culture by Pardis Sabeti Book Resume:

An award-winning genetic researcher and a tenacious journalist examine each phase of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the largest and deadliest of its kind. Their postmortem identifies factors that kept key information from reaching doctors, complicated the government’s response to the crisis, and left responders unprepared for the next outbreak.

Representing Ebola

Representing Ebola [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Marouf A. Hasian Jr.
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
File Size: 423 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4287207


Representing Ebola by Marouf A. Hasian Jr. Book Resume:

Representing Ebola provides readers with a critical legal analysis of the recent West African Ebola Outbreak. The author argues that a review of the scientific, military, legal, economic, political, and mediated coverage of this latest outbreak highlights the ways that organizations like the World Health Organization or Doctors Without Borders want to conceptualize the importance of rapid emergence from the West during African Ebola epidemics. The author concludes that while the U.S. military and other organizations prided themselves on their belated responses to this outbreak oftentimes journalists, scientists, and others overlooked the contributions that were made by contract tracers and indigenous public health workers. Sadly, the 2013-2015 West African outbreak took the lives of thousands of individuals, and the author contends that this contributed to sensationalist ways of representing local burial and food habits. The book concludes by noting that while many West African leaders appreciated the billions of dollars of promised aid that would flow toward this region in the wake of the Ebola outbreak real “health security” measures have to involve longer term infrastructural changes. Talk of how Westerners rescued the West Africans need to be augmented with more nuanced ways of thinking about how many of those who actually battled Ebola need to become part of future conversations regarding everything from theories of “aerial” transmission to the steps that need to be taken during the first few weeks of recorded outbreaks.

A Rumor of Empathy

A Rumor of Empathy [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Lou Agosta
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1482 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4742777


A Rumor of Empathy by Lou Agosta Book Resume:

Empathy is an essential component of the psychoanalyst’s ability to listen and treat their patients. It is key to the achievement of therapeutic understanding and change. A Rumor of Empathy explores the psychodynamic resistances to empathy, from the analyst themselves, the patient, from wider culture, and seeks to explore those factors which represent resistance to empathic engagement, and to show how these can be overcome in the psychoanalytic context. Lou Agosta shows that classic interventions can themselves represent resistances to empathy, such as the unexamined life; over-medication, and the application of devaluing diagnostic labels to expressions of suffering. Drawing on Freud, Kohut, Spence, and other major thinkers, Agosta explores how empathy is distinguished as a unified multidimensional clinical engagement, encompassing receptivity, understanding, interpretation and narrative. In this way, he sets out a new way of understanding and using empathy in psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice. When all the resistances have been engaged, defences analyzed, diagnostic categories applied, prescriptions written, and interpretive circles spun out, in empathy one is quite simply in the presence of another human being. Agosta depicts the unconscious forms of resistance and raises our understanding of the fears of merger that lead a therapist to take a step back from the experience of their patients, using ideas such as "alturistic surrender" and "compassion fatigue" which are highlighted in a number of clinical vignettes. Empathy itself is not self-contained. It is embedded in social and cultural values, and Agosta highlights the mental health culture and its expectations of professional organizations. This outstanding text will be relevant to psychoanalysts, psychotherapists who wish to make a contribution to reducing the suffering and emotional distress of their clients, and also to trainees who are more vulnerable to the professional demands on their capacity for empathic listening. Lou Agosta, Ph.D. teaches empathy in systems and the history of psychology at the Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University. He is the author of numerous articles on empathy in human relations, aesthetics, altruism, and film. He is a psychotherapist in private practice in Chicago, USA. See

Modeling Information Diffusion in Online Social Networks with Partial Differential Equations

Modeling Information Diffusion in Online Social Networks with Partial Differential Equations [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Haiyan Wang,Feng Wang,Kuai Xu
Publisher: Springer Nature
File Size: 578 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 7787279


Modeling Information Diffusion in Online Social Networks with Partial Differential Equations by Haiyan Wang,Feng Wang,Kuai Xu Book Resume:

The book lies at the interface of mathematics, social media analysis, and data science. Its authors aim to introduce a new dynamic modeling approach to the use of partial differential equations for describing information diffusion over online social networks. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix for the underlying social network are used to find communities (clusters) of online users. Once these clusters are embedded in a Euclidean space, the mathematical models, which are reaction-diffusion equations, are developed based on intuitive social distances between clusters within the Euclidean space. The models are validated with data from major social media such as Twitter. In addition, mathematical analysis of these models is applied, revealing insights into information flow on social media. Two applications with geocoded Twitter data are included in the book: one describing the social movement in Twitter during the Egyptian revolution in 2011 and another predicting influenza prevalence. The new approach advocates a paradigm shift for modeling information diffusion in online social networks and lays the theoretical groundwork for many spatio-temporal modeling problems in the big-data era.

Folklore, Gender, and AIDS in Malawi

Folklore, Gender, and AIDS in Malawi [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: A. Wilson
Publisher: Springer
File Size: 759 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 9987629


Folklore, Gender, and AIDS in Malawi by A. Wilson Book Resume:

Informal folk narrative genres such as gossip, advice, rumor, and urban legends provide a unique lens through which to discern popular formations of gender conflict and AIDS beliefs. This is the first book on AIDS and gender in Africa to draw primarily on such narratives. By exploring tales of love medicine, gossip about romantic rivalries, rumors of mysterious new diseases, marital advice, and stories of rape, among others, it provides rich, personally grounded insights into the everyday struggles of people living in an era marked by social upheaval.

Advances in Mutagenesis Research 2

Advances in Mutagenesis Research 2 [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Günter Obe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
File Size: 585 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 3033836


Advances in Mutagenesis Research 2 by Günter Obe Book Resume:

The new field of applied genetic research, genetic toxicology and mutation research investigates the muta- genicity and cancerogenicity of chemicals and other agents. Permanent changes in genes and chromosomes, or genome mutations, can be induced by a plethora of agents, including ionizing and nonionizing radiations, chemicals, and viruses. Mutagenesis research has two aims: (1) to understand the molecular mechanisms leading to mutations, and (2) to prevent a thoughtless introduction of mutagenic agents into our environment. Both aspects, namely, basic and applied, will be treated in the new series Advances in Mutagenesis Research.


Pandemic! [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Slavoj Žižek
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
File Size: 886 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 4199215


Pandemic! by Slavoj Žižek Book Resume:

As an unprecedented global pandemic sweeps the planet, who better than the supercharged Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek to uncover its deeper meanings, marvel at its mind-boggling paradoxes and speculate on the profundity of its consequences? We live in a moment when the greatest act of love is to stay distant from the object of your affection. When governments renowned for ruthless cuts in public spending can suddenly conjure up trillions. When toilet paper becomes a commodity as precious as diamonds. And when, according to Žižek, a new form of communism – the outlines of which can already be seen in the very heartlands of neoliberalism – may be the only way of averting a descent into global barbarism. Written with his customary brio and love of analogies in popular culture (Quentin Tarantino and H. G. Wells sit next to Hegel and Marx), Žižek provides a concise and provocative snapshot of the crisis as it widens, engulfing us all.


Rumors [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10:
Author: Jean-Noel Kapferer
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1742 KB
File Format: Pdf
Read Count: 6330406


Rumors by Jean-Noel Kapferer Book Resume:

Rumors may be the oldest medium of mass communication of information or ideas. Even before there were newspapers, radio, or television, rumors communicated by word-of-mouth made and shattered reputations, and set off riots and wars. Yet contrary to predictions, rumors continue to thrive, in spite of and parallel to mass media. What accounts for the puzzling persistence and continuing significance of this little-studied social phenomenon? Jean-No;el Kapferer examines the theory and practice of rumors, focusing on specific areas such as entertainment, criminal behavior, business and finance, and politics. He describes the kinds of conditions that give birth to rumors, why we believe them, and the hidden messages they convey. Kapferer points out that rumors frequently serve useful social purposes and present rich examples. He speculates about how rumors can be controlled, changed, and prevented. Drawing upon contributions of disciplines ranging from psychology to history, and integrating the insights of Europeans with the latest work of American researchers, this is the most comprehensive examination of rumors, gossip, and urban legends yet published. Translated into nine languages, this edition was updated with advances in theory and research since the book's original French publication in 1987. Its brisk, accessible style makes the book of interest to psychologists, economists, political scientists, sociologists, and folklore analysts, as well as the general reader who is curious about the origins of this fascinating social phenomenon.