A Cultivated Reason

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A Cultivated Reason

A Cultivated Reason [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0271076240
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Publisher: Penn State Press
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A Cultivated Reason by Book Resume:

As Plato’s tripartite division of the soul, Descartes’s criterion of clear and distinct ideas, and Kant’s notion of the categorical imperative attest, philosophy has traditionally been wedded to rationalism and its “intellectualist” view of persons. In this book Christopher Williams seeks to wean his fellow philosophers away from an overly rationalistic self-understanding by using resources that are available within the philosophical tradition itself, including some that anticipate strands of Nietzsche’s thought. The book begins by developing Hume’s critique of rationalism, with reference especially to the section of the Treatise that deals with the continuing existence of bodies (an argument that subverts intellectualist criteria by attempting to satisfy them) and to his neglected essay “The Sceptic” where Hume reveals the importance of our embodiment through a comic portrayal of philosophers’ efforts to “correct our sentiments.” Then it moves on to ward off charges of irrationalism by showing that, although our powers of self-correction are more limited than the rationalist thinks they are, a Humean position is able both to sustain a commitment to reflection and to sensitize us to a version of irrationalism, manifest in monotheistic theologies, that is otherwise difficult to detect. The book concludes, more speculatively, with a comparison of persons to artworks in order to show how our aesthetic dimension is the source of some of the normative work previously assigned to rationalist reason. Ranging as it does across subfields from epistemology and history of philosophy to ethics and aesthetics, A Cultivated Reason should appeal to a wide audience of philosophers and to scholars in other fields as well.

Herbert Spencer: Collected Writings

Herbert Spencer: Collected Writings [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1000422747
Author: Herbert Spencer
Publisher: Routledge
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Herbert Spencer: Collected Writings by Herbert Spencer Book Resume:

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) was regarded by the Victorians as the foremost philosopher of the age, the prophet of evolution at a time when the idea had gripped the popular imagination. Until recently Spencer's posthumous reputation rested almost excusively on his social and political thought, which has itself frequently been subject to serious misrepresentation. But historians of ideas now recognise that an acquaintance with Spencer's thought is essential for the proper understanding of many aspects of Victorian intellectual life, and the present selection is designed to answer this need. It provides a cross-section of Spencer's works from his more popular and approachable essays to a number of the volumes of the Synthetic Philosophy itself. Volume III.

Revisioning Cambridge Platonism: Sources and Legacy

Revisioning Cambridge Platonism: Sources and Legacy [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 3030222004
Author: Douglas Hedley,David Leech
Publisher: Springer Nature
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Revisioning Cambridge Platonism: Sources and Legacy by Douglas Hedley,David Leech Book Resume:

This volume contains essays that examine the work and legacy of the Cambridge Platonists. The essays reappraise the ideas of this key group of English thinkers who served as a key link between the Renaissance and the modern era. The contributors examine the sources of the Cambridge Platonists and discuss their take-up in the eighteenth-century. Readers will learn about the intellectual formation of this philosophical group as well as the reception their ideas received. Coverage also details how their work links to earlier Platonic traditions. This interdisciplinary collection explores a broad range of themes and an appropriately wide range of knowledge. It brings together an international team of scholars. They offer a broad combination of expertise from across the following disciplines: philosophy, Neoplatonic studies, religious studies, intellectual history, seventeenth-century literature, women’s writing, and dissenting studies.The essays were originally presented at a series of workshops in Cambridge on the Cambridge Platonists funded by the AHRC.

The Quest for the Good Life

The Quest for the Good Life [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0191064025
Author: Øyvind Rabbås,Eyjólfur K. Emilsson,Hallvard Fossheim,Miira Tuominen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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The Quest for the Good Life by Øyvind Rabbås,Eyjólfur K. Emilsson,Hallvard Fossheim,Miira Tuominen Book Resume:

How should I live? How can I be happy? What is happiness, really? These are perennial questions, which in recent times have become the object of diverse kinds of academic research. Ancient philosophers placed happiness at the centre of their thought, and we can trace the topic through nearly a millennium. While the centrality of the notion of happiness in ancient ethics is well known, this book is unique in that it focuses directly on this notion, as it appears in the ancient texts. Fourteen papers by an international team of scholars map the various approaches and conceptions found from the Pre-Socratics through Plato, Aristotle, Hellenistic Philosophy, to the Neo-Platonists and Augustine in late antiquity. While not promising a formula that can guarantee a greater share in happiness to the reader, the book addresses questions raised by ancient thinkers that are still of deep concern to many people today: Do I have to be a morally good person in order to be happy? Are there purely external criteria for happiness such as success according to received social norms or is happiness merely a matter of an internal state of the person? How is happiness related to the stages of life and generally to time? In this book the reader will find an informed discussion of these and many other questions relating to happiness.

Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals

Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0300235720
Author: Immanuel Kant
Publisher: Yale University Press
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Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant Book Resume:

Now in a new, affordable edition with updated notes, a superbly readable translation of Kant’s classic work This work, one of the most important texts in the history of ethics, presents Immanuel Kant’s conception of moral self-government based on pure reason. It has been a source of controversy and an object of reinterpretation for over two centuries. This new edition of Kant’s work provides a fresh translation that is uniquely faithful to the German original and more fully annotated than any previous translation. The editor and translator, Allen Wood, has written a new introduction.

Kant and Spencer

Kant and Spencer [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1592442374
Author: Paul Carus
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
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Kant and Spencer by Paul Carus Book Resume:

Essays Scientific, Political, and Speculative: Containing Seven Essays not Before Published, and Various other Additions (Complete)

Essays Scientific, Political, and Speculative: Containing Seven Essays not Before Published, and Various other Additions (Complete) [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1465613870
Author: Herbert Spencer
Publisher: Library of Alexandria
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Essays Scientific, Political, and Speculative: Containing Seven Essays not Before Published, and Various other Additions (Complete) by Herbert Spencer Book Resume:

In a debate upon the development hypothesis, lately narrated to me by a friend, one of the disputants was described as arguing that as, in all our experience, we know no such phenomenon as transmutation of species, it is unphilosophical to assume that transmutation of species ever takes place. Had I been present I think that, passing over his assertion, which is open to criticism, I should have replied that, as in all our experience we have never known a species created, it was, by his own showing, unphilosophical to assume that any species ever had been created. Those who cavalierly reject the Theory of Evolution as not being adequately supported by facts, seem to forget that their own theory is supported by no facts at all. Like the majority of men who are born to a given belief, they demand the most rigorous proof of any adverse belief, but assume that their own needs none. Here we find, scattered over the globe, vegetable and animal organisms numbering, of the one kind (according to Humboldt), some 320,000 species, and of the other, some 2,000,000 species (see Carpenter); and if to these we add the numbers of animal and vegetablespecies which have become extinct, we may safely estimate the number of species that have existed, and are existing, on the Earth, at not less than ten millions. Well, which is the most rational theory about these ten millions of species? Is it most likely that there have been ten millions of special creations? or is it most likely that, by continual modifications due to change of circumstances, ten millions of varieties have been produced, as varieties are being produced still? Doubtless many will reply that they can more easily conceive ten millions of special creations to have taken place, than they can conceive that ten millions of varieties have arisen by successive modifications. All such, however, will find, on inquiry, that they are under an illusion. This is one of the many cases in which men do not really believe, but rather believe they believe. It is not that they can truly conceive ten millions of special creations to have taken place, but that they think they can do so. Careful introspection will show them that they have never yet realized to themselves the creation of even one species. If they have formed a definite conception of the process, let them tell us how a new species is constructed, and how it makes its appearance. Is it thrown down from the clouds? or must we hold to the notion that it struggles up out of the ground? Do its limbs and viscera rush together from all the points of the compass? or must we receive the old Hebrew idea, that God takes clay and moulds a new creature? If they say that a new creature is produced in none of these modes, which are too absurd to be believed, then they are required to describe the mode in which a new creature may be produced—a mode which does not seem absurd; and such a mode they will find that they neither have conceived nor can conceive.

The Kantian Ethics: Metaphysics of Morals, The Critique of Practical Reason & Perpetual Peace

The Kantian Ethics: Metaphysics of Morals, The Critique of Practical Reason & Perpetual Peace [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 802723204X
Author: Immanuel Kant
Publisher: e-artnow
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The Kantian Ethics: Metaphysics of Morals, The Critique of Practical Reason & Perpetual Peace by Immanuel Kant Book Resume:

"Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals," also known as the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, is the first of Immanuel Kant's mature works on moral philosophy and remains one of the most influential in the field. Kant conceives his investigation as a work of foundational ethics—one that clears the ground for future research by explaining the core concepts and principles of moral theory and showing that they are normative for rational agents. Kant aspires to nothing less than this: to lay bare the fundamental principle of morality and show that it applies to us. The Metaphysics of Morals is a work of political and moral philosophy by Immanuel Kant. The work is divided into two main parts, "The Science of Right, which deals with the rights that people have or can acquire, and the Doctrine of Virtue, which deals with the virtues they ought to acquire." The Critique of Practical Reason is the second of Immanuel Kant's three critiques and deals with his moral philosophy. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was a German philosopher, who, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is "the central figure of modern philosophy." Kant argued that fundamental concepts of the human mind structure human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of our understanding, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is unknowable. Contents: Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals The Metaphysics of Morals Philosophy of Law (The Science of Right) The Metaphysical Elements of Ethics The Critique of Practical Reason: Theory of Moral Reasoning Perpetual Peace

A Historical Political Economy of Capitalism

A Historical Political Economy of Capitalism [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1317273303
Author: Andrea Micocci
Publisher: Routledge
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A Historical Political Economy of Capitalism by Andrea Micocci Book Resume:

In order to understand the resilience of capitalism as a mode of production, social organization, and an intellectual system, it is necessary to explore its intellectual development and underlying structure. A Historical Political Economy of Capitalism argues that capitalism is based on a dominant intellectuality: a metaphysics. It proposes the construction of a history-based 'critique of political economy', capable of revealing the poverty of capitalism's intellectual logic and of its application in practice. This involves a reconsideration of several classical thinkers, including Smith, Marx, Berkeley, Locke, Hobbes, Hume and Rousseau. It also sketches an emancipative methodology of analysis, aiming to expose any metaphysics, capitalist or none. In doing so, this book proposes a completely new approach in materialist philosophy. The new methodology in political economy that is proposed in this volume is an alternative way to organize a materialist approach. Some basic aspects of what is argued by the author can be found in Marx. This book is well suited for those who study political economy and economic theory and philosophy, as well as those who are interested in Marxism.

Ethical Theories

Ethical Theories [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1447485106
Author: A. Melden
Publisher: Read Books Ltd
File Size: 1172 KB
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Ethical Theories by A. Melden Book Resume:

The assumption in preparing this volume of reading has been that the most effective way in which an understanding of ethics or moral philosophy can be promoted is through a reading of the original source materials essays written by outstanding and representative thinkers. Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.

Seven Masterpieces of Philosophy

Seven Masterpieces of Philosophy [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 131550880X
Author: Steven M. Cahn
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 1366 KB
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Seven Masterpieces of Philosophy by Steven M. Cahn Book Resume:

This highly anticipated anthology, compiled by noted author and scholar Steven Cahn, presents the seven major works central to any introductory philosophy course in their entirety. Each work has had a profound influence on philosophical thought, and the authors are generally regarded as among the world’s greatest philosophers. Seven Masterpieces in Philosophy features the most well-respected and admired translations, and offers introductions and annotations by Steven Cahn. Anyone seeking to understand the challenges of philosophy could hardly do better than concentrate attention on these seven masterpieces. A great alternative to larger tomes, this book allows the instructor to supplement these works with additional materials of their choosing.

Moral Law: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

Moral Law: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1134898703
Author: Immanuel Kant
Publisher: Routledge
File Size: 911 KB
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Moral Law: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant Book Resume:

First published in 2012. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Classics of Western Philosophy

Classics of Western Philosophy [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1603849726
Author: Steven M. Cahn
Publisher: Hackett Publishing
File Size: 755 KB
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Classics of Western Philosophy by Steven M. Cahn Book Resume:

The Eighth Edition of Steven M. Cahn's Classics of Western Philosophy offers the same exacting standard of editing and translation that made earlier editions of this anthology the most highly valued and widely used volume of its kind. But the Eighth Edition offers exciting new content as well: Plato's Laches (complete), new selections from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (on courage), Descartes' Discourse on Method (complete), all previously omitted sections of Berkeley's A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, Kant's Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (complete). These additions—with no offsetting deletion of content of the Seventh Edition—yield an anthology of unrivaled versatility, the only one to offer the complete texts of: both Descartes' Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, both Berkeley's A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, Kant's Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics and selections from the Critique of Pure Reason.

History of Ethics

History of Ethics [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1119235936
Author: Daniel Star,Roger Crisp
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
File Size: 1639 KB
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History of Ethics by Daniel Star,Roger Crisp Book Resume:

Is there an objective moral standard that applies to all our actions? To what extent should I sacrifice my own interests for the sake of others? How might philosophers of the past help us think about contemporary ethical problems? As the most recent addition to the Blackwell Readings in Philosophy series, History of Ethics: Essential Readings with Commentary brings together rich and varied excerpts of canonical work and contemporary scholarship to span the history of Western moral philosophy in one volume. Editors Star and Crisp, noted scholars in their fields, expertly introduce the readings to illuminate the main philosophical ideas and arguments in each selection, and connect them to broader themes. These detailed and incisive editorial commentaries make the primary source texts accessible to students while guiding them chronologically through the history of Western ethics. Structured around a thematic table of contents divided into three distinct sections, History of Ethics charts patterns in the development of ethical thought across time to highlight connections between intellectual movements. Selections range from the work of well-known figures such as Plato, Aristotle, Nietzsche, and Mill to the work of philosophers often overlooked by such anthologies, including Butler, Smith, Sidgwick, Anscombe, Foot, and Frankena. Star and Crisp skillfully arrange the collection to connect readings to contemporary issues and interests by featuring examples such as Aquinas on self-defense and the doctrine of double effect, Kant on virtue, and Mill’s The Subjection of Women. Written for students and scholars of ethics, History of Ethics is a comprehensive collection of readings with expert editorial commentary that curates the most important and influential work in the history of ethics in the Western world.

Human Nature: A Reader

Human Nature: A Reader [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1603848274
Author: Joel J. Kupperman
Publisher: Hackett Publishing
File Size: 1058 KB
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Human Nature: A Reader by Joel J. Kupperman Book Resume:

This anthology provides a set of distinctive, influential views that explore the mysteries of human nature from a variety of perspectives. It can be read on its own, or in conjunction with Joel Kupperman’s text, Theories of Human Nature.

Theories of Human Nature, and, Human Nature: A Reader

Theories of Human Nature, and, Human Nature: A Reader [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1603849475
Author: Joel J. Kupperman
Publisher: Hackett Publishing
File Size: 1526 KB
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Theories of Human Nature, and, Human Nature: A Reader by Joel J. Kupperman Book Resume:

Now available together as a set for a discounted price: Theories of Human Nature, with, Human Nature: A Reader, by Joel J. Kupperman. On Theories of Human Nature:A very fine book on human nature, both what it is and what philosophers have thought about it--philosophers in an inclusive sense, from Plato and Aristotle to Mengzi and Xunzi, from Hume and Kant to Ibn al-Arabi to Marx and Rousseau and including many others. The writing is lively and accessible, the philosophy insightful, and the sense of human possibilities conveyed admirable. It will fit nicely into many different sorts of classes. --John Perry, Stanford University On Nature: A Reader: This anthology provides a set of distinctive, influential views that explore the mysteries of human nature from a variety of perspectives.

Kant's Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals

Kant's Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0191620599
Author: Henry E. Allison
Publisher: OUP Oxford
File Size: 993 KB
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Kant's Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals by Henry E. Allison Book Resume:

Henry E. Allison presents a comprehensive commentary on Kant's Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). It differs from most recent commentaries in paying special attention to the structure of the work, the historical context in which it was written, and the views to which Kant was responding. Allison argues that, despite its relative brevity, the Groundwork is the single most important work in modern moral philosophy and that its significance lies mainly in two closely related factors. The first is that it is here that Kant first articulates his revolutionary principle of the autonomy of the will, that is, the paradoxical thesis that moral requirements (duties) are self-imposed and that it is only in virtue of this that they can be unconditionally binding. The second is that for Kant all other moral theories are united by the assumption that the ground of moral requirements must be located in some object of the will (the good) rather than the will itself, which Kant terms heteronomy. Accordingly, what from the standpoint of previous moral theories was seen as a fundamental conflict between various views of the good is reconceived by Kant as a family quarrel between various forms of heteronomy, none of which are capable of accounting for the unconditionally binding nature of morality. Allison goes on to argue that Kant expresses this incapacity by claiming that the various forms of heteronomy unavoidably reduce the categorical to a merely hypothetical imperative.

Process and the Authentic Life

Process and the Authentic Life [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 3110328208
Author: Jason W. Brown
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
File Size: 1784 KB
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Process and the Authentic Life by Jason W. Brown Book Resume:

The thesis advanced in this book is that feeling and cognition actualize through a process that originates in older brain formations and develops outward through limbic and cortical fields through the self-concept and private space into (as) the world. An iteration of this transition deposits acts, objects, feelings and utterances. Value is a mode of conceptual feeling that depends on the dominant phase in this transition: from desire through interest to object worth. Among the topics covered are subjective time and change, the epochal nature of objects and their temporal extensibility and the evolution of value from inorganic matter into organic form. The theory of microgenesis informs this work. According to this theory, acts and objects evolve in milliseconds through phases that replicate patterns in forebrain evolution. The progression in the actualization of the mind/brain state is from archaic to recent in brain formation, from unity to diversity, from past to present and from mind to world. An account is given of the diversity of felt experience avoiding the reductionist moves characteristic of biological materialism and the inherent dualism of psychoanalytic and related theories. This book is intended for any reader interested in the psychology of the inner life and philosophy of mind, including philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and others with an interest in problems of value and moral feeling.

Ethical Theory

Ethical Theory [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 1118316827
Author: Russ Shafer-Landau
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
File Size: 1233 KB
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Ethical Theory by Russ Shafer-Landau Book Resume:

The second edition of Ethical Theory: An Anthology features a comprehensive collection of more than 80 essays from classic and contemporary philosophers that address questions at the heart of moral philosophy. Brings together 82 classic and contemporary pieces by renowned philosophers, from seminal works by Hume and Kant to contemporary views by Derek Parfit, Susan Wolf, Judith Jarvis Thomson, and many more Features updates and the inclusion of a new section on feminist ethics, along with a general introduction and section introductions by Russ Shafer-Landau Guides readers through key areas in ethical theory including consequentialism, deontology, contractarianism, and virtue ethics Includes underrepresented topics such as moral knowledge, moral standing, moral responsibility, and ethical particularism

Reforming Liberalism

Reforming Liberalism [Pdf/ePub] eBook ISBN-10: 0300133901
Author: Robert Devigne
Publisher: Yale University Press
File Size: 692 KB
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Read Count: 2522664

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Reforming Liberalism by Robert Devigne Book Resume:

In Reforming Liberalism, Robert Devigne challenges prevailing interpretations of the political and moral thought of John Stuart Mill and the theoretical underpinnings of modern liberal philosophy. He explains how Mill drew from ancient and romantic thought as well as past religious practices to reconcile conflicts and antinomies (liberty and virtue, self-interest and morality, equality and human excellence) that were hobbling traditional liberalism. The book shows that Mill, regarded as a seminal writer in the liberal tradition, critiques liberalism’s weaknesses with a forcefulness usually associated with its well-known critics. Devigne explores Mill’s writings to demonstrate how his thought has been misconstrued--as well as oversimplified--to the detriment of our understanding of liberalism itself.